Walking Paris in Three Days: Complete Guide

Walking Paris in Three Days


 Walking Paris in Three Days  : First Day

We propose this travel guide to visit Paris in three days where the most famous places were included and some recommendations do not waste a minute of time

Arrived to Visit Paris on train to the station of Paris Gare du Nord from London. We took a public transport ( Metro).Luckily the hotel was very close.

Before starting, I commented that there is an option for those who do not intend to walk: make a City Tour hop on-hop off, of which you can tour the main points of the city for one or two days. In Paris there are two very good companies: Big Bus and City Sigthseeing

They see in Paris in 3 days 

Arc de Triomphe & Grand Palais

Download The Complete Guide: Three Days in Paris  

We will start our route at the Arc de Triomphe (Charles de Gaulle-Etoile metro:  lines 1, 2 and 6). We advise climbing to have a panoramic view of Paris. Once up, you can see the large avenues that start from here dividing the center of Paris, the financial district of La Defense and the famous Eiffel Tower.

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Walking Paris in Three Days: Complete Guide
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Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century

Advertising and Travel: Vessels

At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, many shipping lines that transported mail and some passengers transformed their ships into luxury  Vessels . It was no longer just the flow of immigrants to America. It was a transportation business by sea. And luxury in many cases. This is a brief history of the passengers who crossed the Atlantic oceans on ships. And of the graphic advertisements of that time


Traveling on Sailboats

In 1818, the Black Ball Line shipping company offered the first regular passenger service from the United Kingdom to the United States with a fleet of sailing ships, offering comfort services to passengers. A few years later numerous companies followed their example offering their services around the world.

In 1840, the ship of the British shipping company Cunard Line, the RMS Britannia began its first regular passenger and cargo service performed by a steamship, sailing from Liverpool to Boston. But sailboats still maintained a dominant position in passenger traffic
In 1845, the SS Great Britain became the first propeller-driven iron-hulled ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

  .


Fighting for the Passengers

In the British market, the Cunard Line and the White Star Line maintain a fierce competition from the purchase of the latter company by Thomas Ismay in the late 1860s. The competition is focused on shortening the time between the United Kingdom and New York

In 1899, the White Star Line introduced a new type of boat with the name of RMS Oceanic. The construction of the RMS Oceanic marked a point of inflection from which the White Star stopped competing in speed to offer more comfort and luxury to its passengers.

Cunard Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century

The enlarging Market: Germany

In 1897, Germany appeared in the shipping market of the eltantico with the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse of Norddeutscher Lloyd. A few years later three more twin ships, belonging to the Kaiser class, were added. This ship was the first to own four. The ship would only have needed two for the operation of its boilers, but a larger number of chimneys gave passengers a greater sense of security and was used as a marketing argument

In 1900, the shipping company HAPAG launched the SS Deutschland, also equipped with four chimneys and built to develop high speed. but this increase in speed caused vibrations in the structure of the ship, so it lost market given the discomfort of traveling in those conditions

Normandie Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th CenturyCunard Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Centurywhite star line Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century


Larger and Faster Passenger  

In 1902, Cunard built two new ocean liners, the RMS Lusitania and the RMS Mauretania, designed to reach a cruising speed of close to 24 knots.

In 1911, the White Star Line launched the RMS Olympic the first of three vessels of 45,000 gross tons, (Olympic class). The other two vessels were to the RMS Titanic and the HMHS Britannic.

In 1912, the RMS Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, leaving a balance of more than 1,500 people dead. The HMHS Britannic sank November 21 while crossing the Kea channel (Aegean Sea), in the Greek archipelago by an explosion caused by a mine. In this shipwreck 29 people died.

And the war took the Vessels

Before starting WWI, the shipping line Hamburg America Line ordered the construction of three large giant ships, the SS Imperator, SS Vaterland and SS Bismarck, all with more than 51,500 gross tons. The Imperator was launched in 1912, and the Bismarck (later renamed the RMS Majestic) would be the largest ship in the world until 1935.

These ships were not in service with the Hamburg America Line before the First World War. After the war, they were handed over as war reparations after the German defeat, and awarded to the British and American shipping companies. The Vaterland was the SS Leviathan of the United States Lines; the Imperator became the RMS Berengaria and the Bismarck became the RMS Majestic. Respectively of the Cunard and the White Star Line

 


Passengers and Crews at War

The outbreak of the First World War interrupted the transatlantic commercial trips by the activity of German submarines. In 1915, the RMS Lusitania, in service as a civilian passenger ship, was attacked and torpedoed by a German U-boat. It was sunk in the coast of Ireland with a loss of life of 1,200 passengers and crew.

Large ocean liners, such as the RMS Mauretania and the RMS Olympic, were required for the transport of troops and hospital ships, while smaller ships became armed merchant cruisers. The HMHS Britannic, entered into service in the war as a hospital ship as soon as it was completed, a task he performed for a year before being sunk by a mine in the Aegean Sea.

 Titanic Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century


The Golden Years Returned

After the WWI ended, bigger and faster ships continued to be built. In 1929, the German ships SS Bremen and SS Europe exceeded the speed record set by the Mauretania twenty years earlier, with an average speed of almost 28 knots. The ships used new hydrodynamic designs at the bow and new steam turbines to reach these speeds .

In 1933, the Italian transatlantic SS Rex of 51,300 tons, with a crossing time of four days and thirteen hours, broke the record of the Atlantic crossing. In 1935, the French liner SS Normandie used a new and revolutionary helmet design and a powerful turbo-electric transmission to beat the record again.
Due to the crisis of 1929 the British government merged the Cunard Line and the White Star Line. The new company called Cunard White Star Line, built the RMS Queen Mary and the RMS Queen Elizabeth. Two of the most luxurious ships of that time

 

 

 

The Experience of Traveling in Imperial Airways

imperial airways Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Centuryimperial airways Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Centuryimperial airways Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century

 


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Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century
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Welcome to Palace 2019

Visit to Little Known Palaces of Madrid

See Spanish Version

Welcome to Palace 2019: there is a new version of this activity. And the registration begins on March 11, 2019 at 5:00 pm Spanish Time. For us on the East Coast (New York City) will be 11.00AM and for those who are on the West Coast (San Francisco) will be 07.00 AM. They are visits to palaces that are NOT usually open to the public for different reasons.

Registration for free guided visits to Palacios de Madrid will be via web and in previous editions have been exhausted in just hours.

Welcome to Palace 2019 Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez
Welcome to Palace 2019

It is the sixth edition that is valid between April 2019 and January 2020 and the organization corresponds to the Directorate General of Cultural Heritage.

You can access more than 20 palaces that are cultural heritage and can not be visited if not through this program . There are also options apart from the guided tours such as live concerts and live performances.

All the information of the program Welcome to Palacio 2019-2020, places, places, activities dates etc. You can check here on the official website.

Reservations at: http://www.bienvenidosapalacio2019.es

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez-


Welcome to Palace 2019: Some Palaces 2018

  • Palace of the Duke of Fernán Núñez (Santa Isabel 44, Atocha), currently headquarters of the Foundation of Spanish Railways.
  • Godoy Palace
  • General Quarter of the Spanish Army: Buenavista Palace (Barquillo 49, Chueca)
  • Viana Palace (Duque de Rivas 1, Tirso de Molina), headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or the
  • Palace of the Marquis of Fontalba, headquarters of the Attorney General’s Office State.
  • list complete in the OFFICIAL WEBSITE
Front of Royal Palae Of Aranjuez -one day in madrid
Welcome to Palace 2019 – Front of Royal Palae Of Aranjuez

Madrid Useful information

How to get there: From USA to  Madrid ( Spain) 

New York ► Madrid – Barajas Airport

Air France Air France 8 h  Direct 
KLM KLM 8 h  Direct 
Delta Delta 8 h  Direct 
Tap Air Portugal Tap Air Portugal 7 h 55 m Direct 
United United 7 h 50 m Direct 
Lufthansa Lufthansa 7 h 50 m Direct 
Brussels Airlines Brussels Airlines 7 h 50 m Direct 

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Welcome to Palace 2019 - Alcazar of Toledo
Welcome to Palace 2019 – Alcazar of Toledo
Welcome to Palace 2019
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Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019

Visita a Palacios Poco Conocidos de Madrid

Ver Versión en Ingles

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 : hay una nueva version de esta actividad. Y comienza la inscripción el 11 de marzo de 2019 a las 17 hs Hora  Española. Para nosotros en la costa Este (New York City) serán las 11.00AM y para los que están en la costa Oeste (San Francisco)  serán las 07.00 AM. Son visitas a  palacios que NO están abiertos al público habitualmente por diferentes razones.

Las inscripciones para las visitas guiadas gratuitas a Palacios de Madrid serán por vía web y en las ediciones anteriores se han agotado en solo horas.

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez
Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 – 2020 —  Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez

Es la sexta edición  que tiene vigencia entre abril de 2019 a enero de 2020 y  la organización corresponde a la Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural.

Se pueden acceder a más de 20 palacios que son patrimonio cultural y no se podrán visitar si no es mediante este programa.  También hay opciones aparte de las visitas guiadas como ser conciertos y actuaciones de epoca en vivo.

Toda la información del programa  Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019-2020, lugares, sitios, actividades fechas etc.  se puede consultar aquí en la web oficial.

Reservas en : http://www.bienvenidosapalacio2019.es

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez-
Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 – 2020 — Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez


Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019: Algunos Palacios 2018

  • Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez (Santa Isabel 44,  Atocha), actualmente sede de la Fundación de Ferrocarriles Españoles.
  • Palacio de Godoy
  • Cuartel General del Ejército de Tierra: Palacio de Buenavista (Barquillo 49, Chueca)
  • Palacio de Viana (Duque de Rivas 1, Tirso de Molina), sede del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores o el
  • Palacio del Marqués de Fontalba sede dela Fiscalía General del Estado.
  • lista completa en la WEB OFICIAL 
Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - 2020 -Madrid Palacio Real -
Madrid Palacio Real – se puede visitar todo el año

Palacios a Visitar en 2019

  • Palacio de Buenavista (Cuartel General del Ejército de Tierra),
  • Palacio de D. Javier González-Longoria (Sociedad General de Autores y Editores),
  • Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez (Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles)
  • Palacio de los duques de Liria y Alba
  • Palacio del duque de Santoña (Cámara de Comercio, Industria de Madrid)
  • Palacio del marqués de Amboage (Residencia del Embajador de Italia)
  • Palacio del marqués de Villafranca (Real Academia de Ingeniería)
  • Palacio del infante don Luis de Borbón
  • Palacio de don Ignacio Bauer (Escuela Superior de Canto)
  • Palacio Laredo (Centro Internacional de Estudios Históricos Cisneros y Museo Cisneriano)
  • Palacio de Zurbano (Ministerio De Fomento).
  • Palacio de los marqueses de Fontalba (Fiscalía General de Estado)
  • Palacete del marqués de Rafal (Residencia del Embajador de Bélgica)
  • Casa-Palacio de don Manuel González-Longoria (Colegio Notarial de Madrid)
  • Palacio de Godoy, (Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales)
  • Palacio de la duquesa de Parcent (Ministerio de Justicia)
  • Palacete de Joaquín Sorolla (Museo Sorolla)
  • Palacio de Parque Florido (Museo Lázaro Galdiano)
  • Palacio del marqués de Villafranca (Real Academia de Ingeniería)
  • Palacio de los marqueses de Argüeso (Embajada de Argentina)
  • Palacio del marqués de Viana (Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación)
  • Palacete de don Guillermo de Osma (Instituto Valencia Don Juan)
  • El Palacio del marqués de Villamejor
  • Palacio de la condesa de Adanero
  • Castillo-Palacio de Aldovea
  • Palacio del marqués de Gaviria.

Madrid Informacion Util

Como viajar de USA a Madrid ( España) 

New York ► Madrid – Barajas Airport

Air France Air France 8 h  Direct 
KLM KLM 8 h  Direct 
Delta Delta 8 h  Direct 
Tap Air Portugal Tap Air Portugal 7 h 55 m Direct 
United United 7 h 50 m Direct 
Lufthansa Lufthansa 7 h 50 m Direct 
Brussels Airlines Brussels Airlines 7 h 50 m Direct 

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Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019
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Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Roman Empire: Routes & Network on Line Calculator

Land and Maritime

Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire.
You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator and Trade Network

 

Choose the place of departure and destination

And press calculate

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt

Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road londinium to coptos

Costs in denarii

In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62
Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29
Per passenger in a car: 2778.04

Cartago Nova to Rome

Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain)  to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network - Cartago nova to Rome

Same route as the previous one but in winter

Cartago nova to Rome in winter

Londinium to Rome in winter and summer

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator:  from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route

29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator - londinium to Rome in winter
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

 

A Little History of Roman Roads

The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before.
He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire.
The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.

The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative.  The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire

 

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Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
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◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Crane
Ancient Rome Crane

 

The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.

Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire

In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.

Pentaspastos

A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.

Ereaders


The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.

However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?

Ancient Rome Books

Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist

The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.

The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.

 

Marco Vitruvio Polión : Crane & Hoist Architect

(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )

Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.

Ancient Roman Crane engineers
Ancient Roman Crane engineers

In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.

As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.

Roman Cranes = Medieval Treadwheel Cranes

The Roman wheel cranes almost unchanged or modified will be used until the modern age and in some cases until the mid-nineteenth century as in the ports of Germany. Some are still today in their original places of construction. As an example we will put the Cathedral of Strasbourg (France) and the Church Beverley Minster (England)

Vitruvius the ten books on architecture on Amazon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related Post 

 

Ancient Cranes in Pinterest

A colaboration of : Besthoist.com

 

◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome
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The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis – Atenas – Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.


They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) –

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).
ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line


Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia – Saint Remy de Provence – (France)

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 

The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno – Nimes – (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

 

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France)

End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome


The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.
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AAA Travel 2019

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

There are two versions of AAA Travel: One free and one with membership. To find out if it is convenient or not to be a AAA Travel member, first see the prices. Then compare prices.

All membership plans include the AAA Travel roadside assistance benefit. this gives rights to free towing, replacement of spare tires, depleted battery start and delivery of fuel for your vehicles.

The levels of benefits increase with the hiring of higher price plans. For example, a high plan has a free 100-mile trailer.

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Other Benefits

The benefits of the AAA not only cover roadside assistance but also have additional benefits

Renew the driver’s license and Avoid the DMV

Many of the AAA branches also have driver’s license renewal services. This saves time and money and avoids doing the process in the DMV

Passport photos with discount
Discounts for those who have basic membership. And also free for higher memberships. You can also obtain a passport application. The AAA does not process passports.


International Driver’s License

You can get an international driver’s license (IDP) at any AAA location. You can also send a request by mail. An IDP is an identification document for the driver abroad. It is legal in more than 150 countries and is printed in several languages.
Requirements: valid EE license. UU, two passport size photos on white background and pay the corresponding fee

Rent-a-Car Plans

Offers coupons with discounts through Hertz. It has its own car search engine for rent

Travel insurance

The AAA has several types of travel insurance available, depending on the region of destination. They also offer according to the region insurance for cancellation or interruption of trips

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Other discounts

Discounts on tickets to theme parks such as Walt Disney World, Universal studios and special holiday packages in some regions and also on cruises. Also in trips to Europe you can get benefits in the purchase of train tickets (Rail Europe).

Travel planning

The AAA website also includes reservations for hotels, flights, vacation planning, car rentals. If you contact the AAA branches, they will assist you in booking services for members and also in planning group trips.

Road trips and planning

The traditional benefits of AAA on the road include towing, assistance with flat tires, vehicle lockout service, fuel delivery and more, but there are other AAA travel benefits when it comes to hitting the road.

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Hotels and accommodations with discounts

Using the search engine of AAA and also points are recognized in loyalty programs. The discount hotels are among others: Best Western, Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott and MGM Resorts

Is the AAA Travel membership profitable?

Only If you need a full-service vacation planner and also travel discounts. An agency like AAA Travel can save you time, money and effort. But you should compare if the membership fee is lower than the money savings in the first place. And if apart it saves time and effort, which are also money.

Prices Membership AAA Travel 2019

Prices Membership AAA Travel.

Images are from the web AAA Travel.com

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AAA Travel 2019
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Roman Treadwheel Crane in Spain – Arde Lucus 2019

Roman Treadwheel Crane in Doade – Galicia – Spain

We made a list of the existing medieval treadwheel cranes in Europe, but we did not know about it. It is not a medieval treadwheel crane but it is Roman, which would be the same. This crane model was used until almost the 19th century.

The amazing thing about this crane is that although it is Roman, it is built in the 21st century. There is a celebration in the city of Lugo – Spain called ARDE LUCUS. In the framework of this festival in the Village of Doade, this treadwheel crane was built. Investigating a little more we could see that there were also demonstrations of the operation of this crane, which makes it unique. The totality of the indexed cranes is in exibition not in operation.

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Roman Treadwheel Crane in Spain – Arde Lucus 2019
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Florida Renaissance Festival 2019

Florida Renaissance Festival in 2019

The Renaissance :  was a fascinating period in history when Europe made the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. The transformation was marked by art, clothing and cuisine.

This season is recreated every year at Quiet Waters Park in Deerfield Beach – Florida USA. The Florida Renaissance Festival 2019 is nothing less than the 27th anniversary of this event.

Florida Renaissance Festival in 2019
Florida Renaissance Festival in 2019

Days and Dates. Hours – Prices

Saturdays and Sundays, February 9-10, 16-17 and 23-24, and March 2-3, 9-10, 16-17, and 23-24, 2019. Monday is added as school day, February 11. The school day is open only to schools that have previously registered. Each weekend has a specific theme.


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Florida Renaissance Festival 2019
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8 beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

A beautiful and unknown Ireland Places

Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering. See image gallery

Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering.
If Ireland is part of your next trip to Europe, you can not miss any of these places.

Skellig Islands

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Located in the Atlantic, 13 kilometers southwest of Valentia Island, in the County of Kerry, Skellig Michael was chosen by J.J Abrams (Director of Star Wars: The Force Awakens) for the course of the new story. Well-known within the archaeological world, on the edge of some amazing cliffs that the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw described as “part of our world of dreams”, stands one of the best preserved Christian archaeological sites in the world, which were named as Patrimony World of Humanity by Unesco, in 1996.

The huts that serve as a dwelling for the veteran Jedi in fiction are actually a recreation of the stone houses where the monks lived and prayed more than 14 centuries ago. Filming in the authentic ones was limited. The island, one of the two that form the archipelago (the other is Little Skellig) became a refuge in the past for those whose beliefs and rights were being repressed by the Criminal Laws, imposed during the British rule of Ireland and which marginalized the native Catholic population. The best of beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Derryvegal Lake

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

This magical water mirror is located in the Beara peninsula, it is a perfect place to relax and enjoy the wildlife, while the misty peaks of the mountains and the deep forest surrounding the lake are appreciated. Its scenic beauty is an undeniable attraction for lovers of photography.

Glen of Glenariff

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

It is one of the nine Glens of Antrim. The Glens are valleys that look out to sea and that stand out for their natural beauty. The Glenariff is known as the “Queen of the Glens”. With just taking a look at the photo, one immediately understands why. Nearby is the Glenariff Forest Park, a leafy oasis full of waterfalls and riverside walks. It is a beautiful and unknown Ireland landscape 

Slieve League

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Other of beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes is cliffs of Slieve League, in County Donegal. Is one of those places where nature leaves one speechless. The imposing sea stretched on the horizon, the sea breeze blowing around and the waves crashing against the rocks, a combination of elements that make this place an almost obligatory stop for tourists. If you want to portray this landscape, it is best to head to the highest point of the cliffs, where there is an impressive drop of 609 meters.

Hill of Uisneach

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

It is said that this area is the old center of Ireland, marked by the famous Aill na Míreann (the Stone of the Divisions). It is also considered the resting place of Lugh, god of the sun. Here you can also see the beautiful wooden sculpture of the sculptor Richie Clarke, which represents this legendary deity on the shores of Lough Lugh Lake, where it is said that he found his end as mortal. This hill not only offers a beautiful landscape, but also has a lot of folklore and legends to discover.

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Clough Oughter Castle

The fortress, home of the O’Reilly clan, was built in the 12th century on a crannóg (artificial island) in the middle of a lake, in the county of Cavan. These ancient stones enclose secrets of confronting families, intrepid battles and ancient history. Guided boat tours of the lake and castle are available, which is part of the Marble Arch Caves Global Geopark, located next to the Killykeen Forest Park.

Flagstaff lookout

Flagstaff lookout- beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Near the city of Newry, the Flagstaff viewpoint is a place to have a good time with the camera in hand because it offers spectacular views of Carlingford Lough, the Mournes and the Cooley Mountains.

Glencar Lake

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes
beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

This lake is a true oasis that gives an unforgettable moment of tranquility surrounded by a striking natural setting, like steep cliffs on its banks and waterfalls that form in the vicinity, the most famous was immortalized by the words of the great WB Yeats, in his mystic poem The Stolen Child. it is a one of the beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Sources

 Ireland.com

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8 beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes
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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

1.45 Billion People Travel the World in 2019

By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France, Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.

Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe (both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%). 

madrid Paris People will Travel the World in 2019

Travelers on the Rise Every Year

The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”

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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?
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History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

Decoration and Architects of Chenonceau Castle

You can know the history of a building through the works of its builders. This is the History of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau.

The castle we know today was built on the demolition of an old fortress and a fortified mill owned by the Marques family. From that time only the tribute tower that was modified in the style of the time and its new owners survives. It was built by Thomas Bohier, Intendant General of Finance of King Francisco I of France between 1513 and 1521. The main part is rectangular (50 x 55 meters) where the hallways and rooms are. In charge of overseeing the construction was his wife Katherine Briçonnet, since her husband was busy with the matter in court.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

Gardens and architects of the castle of chenonceau

At the death of Mr. Thomas Bohier the crown ordered an audit of the kingdom’s finances. The results were charges against Thomas Bohier for misappropriating funds against the crown, for which his assets were expropriated. The crown recovered the royal dominion over the castle and at the same time King Francisco I gave it to his favorite Diana de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois.

Related post : Three days in Paris

As of that moment the destiny of the Chenonceau castle was marked by the presence of six more women. Here we detail them and the brands that they printed until today, the most visited castle in France.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

 

Diana de Poitiers 1499 – 1566

King Henry II gave the Chateau de Chenonceau to his favorite, Diana de Poitiers in 1547. Diana commissioned Pacello da Mercoliano to design and build the gardens, which were the most beautiful of that time. The architect Philibert de l’Orme was entrusted with the task of building a bridge over the cher river in order to extend the gardens to the other shore. Diana de Poitiers managed to get Francisco I of France to settle in the place next to the whole court.

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Catherine de Médicis 1519 – 1589

Henry II, King of France, died of injuries caused accidentally while participating in a tournament in 1559. Catherine de Médicis, wife of the deceased monarch, became the regent of the Kingdom of France, since her children were younger than age. Catherine forced Diana de Poitiers to cede the property of the castle to the crown in exchange for another nearby Chateau: Chaumont-sur-Loire. It expanded the existing gardens and improved the building’s body with reforms.

It was at that time (1576-1577) that the double-story gallery where the parties were organized was built by one of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau: Jean Bullant. The gallery was built on the bridge and is the aspect that can be seen today. From the green cabinet being regent, Catherine de ‘Medici was in charge of the affairs of the Kingdom of France.

It should be noted that the original plans and designs of the gallery belonged to the architect Philibert de l’Orme, who had built the bridge. The gallery is 60 meters long and 6 meters wide. It has 18 Windows, floor of mosaics of tuff and slate, shaped like a chessboard. It was inaugurated in 1577 during the celebrations organized by Catherine de Médicis in honor of her son King Henry III of France.

Luisa de Lorraine 1553 – 1601

Henry III King of France and son of Catherine de Médicis, died in 1589. His wife Luisa de Lorraine retired to the castle of Chenonceau wearing the usual white mourning (label of the time). He lived until his death in the castle almost without leaving it. After Luisa de Lorena there was no more presence of the Crown of France in Chenonceau. It was already in private hands. By inheritance of Luisa de Lorraine the castle was inherited by César de Vendôme and his wife, Francesca de Lorraine, Duchess of Vendôme. For the next 100 years, it was inherited through the Valois family.

Louise Dupin 1706 – 1799

In 1720 it was bought by the Duke of Bourbon who sold them works of art and statues of Chenonceau. Some of them went to the Palace of Versailles. In the summer of 1733, Claude Dupin bought the castle of Chenonceau from the Duke of Bourbon. His wife, Louise Dupin in organized meetings and gatherings with writers, poets and scientists. Voltaire and Rosseau were regular. During the French Revolution and under its administration, Chenonceau was preserved.

Related post : Walk Strasbourg – France

Marguerite Pelouze 1836 – 1902

Marguerite Pelouze bought the Château de Chenonceau in 1867, which at that time had 136 hectares of land. I buy it at 850,000 francs. Then he decided to restore the castle as in the time of Diana de Poitiers. The works were carried out from 1867 to 1878 by the architect Félix Roguet. During this restoration almost all the changes made by Catherine de Médicis were eliminated.

In 1879, Claude Debussy joined the chenonceau orchestra as a pianist, with the purpose of completing the castle’s small chamber orchestra. Debussy spends almost all that summer in Chenonceau. One thinks that the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Gustave Deloye, was the author of the caryatids (Column in the form of feminine sculpture) of the castle.

In 1888, Marguerite Pelouze, already separated from her husband, filed for bankruptcy and sold the Chenonceau castle. Acquired by Crédit Foncier, and sold in 1891 to Mr. José Émilio Terry, deputy of Cuba in the Spanish Cortes. His family will retain the property of castilool until 1913

Simonne Menier 1881 – 1972

The Terry family in 1913 sells Chenonceau to industrial Henri Menier (1853-1913). The Menier family is the owner of the castle today. During the First World War, a hospital for the war-wounded was set up in Chenonceau, funded by Mr. Gaston Menier (1880-1933). Simone Menier, wife of Georges, as head nurse, administered the hospital that installed 120 beds in two of the Galeries of the castle.

In a room in the castle of Chenonceau X-ray machines were adapted an X-ray machine. Also 2,254 soldiers were treated at that hospital during WWI. After the war, the equipment was dismantled and stored for years. Decades later in an auxiliary room of the castle, the hospital was assembled again and turned into a museum

Military Hospital of the Chenonceau Castle

Second World War
The main gallery, the covered bridge that crosses the river Cher, was used during the Second World War by the French resistance. The castle was used for people to escape to Free France, taking advantage of the fact that it was on the border. It turns out that south entrance faced France Vichy “free”. and the rest of the castle was in the area occupied by Nazi Germany.

Related post : Discovering a Medieval City: Carcassone

The castle during World War II suffered some damages by bombing of both sides, damaging in a total way the windows and vitreaux. These stained glass windows were repaired after the fight was over.

There were several illustrious visitors after its opening to the public in 1952. Among them we can mention the Queen of England Elizabeth II, her son Carlos and Diana Diana, Princess of Wales. Also the president of the United States Harry Truman visited Chemonceau.

In the Castle shop you can buy souvenirs of the visit, books and vintage posters

Summing up The architects of the Castle of Chenonceau, were:

Felix Roguet
Philibert de l’Orme
Jean Bullant
Pacello da Mercoliano

External Links

 

This is a collaboration of the blog quierodecorarte.com, of a note translated from Spanish. The original note can be seen here in Spanish. Part of the images are property of quierodecorarte.com.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau
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Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today

Five Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheel cranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.

Crane  in the Port of Luneburg – Germany

The old crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Germany – Port of Luneburg

The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.

The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load

Anecdotes of the treadwheel crane

In 1840, the Treadwheel crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time. 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Port of Luneburg

As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – port of Luneburg

With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons. 


Ostricher – Germany

The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop’s privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.

We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.

The Oestricher Wheel Crane is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Oestricher Kran en Rheingau 1744
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Oestricher Kran en Rheingau 1744

This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.

The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.


Trier – Germany

Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.

The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.
 
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Trier
 

A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain. 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Trier

It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name “Alte Krahnen” in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.


Andernach – Germany

The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier- Andernach alter-krahnen
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Trier- Andernach alter-krahnen

The Andernacher Krahnen was the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.

The Crane

The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).

The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.

The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called “Kaiserbaum” or “support tree”. Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.


Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Germany

It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 “. And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler […] of all Babylon.”)

 

Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen - Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany

In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.

The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church’s hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.

As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.

Maybe it interests you too: Medieval Treadwheel Crane in England– Beverley Minster

 References and Bibliography

      1. Friends of Beverley Minster
      2. Legende van de Maneblussers
      3. National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk 
      4. Alter Kran (Lüneburg)
      5. Abbaye du Mont-Saint-Michel – Cage à écureuil
      6. Historic England Org.- The Harwich Treadwheel Crane
      7. Grua de Rueda de la Catedral de Estrasburgo
      8. Medieval Treadwheels: Artists’ Views of Building Constructions –  The Johns Hopkins University Press
      9. Surrey Industrial Hiistory Group – Guilford
      10. Denkmalgesellschaft Bingen – Oestricher Kran
      11. The privatisation of the Brunswick State Railways in 1869-70
      12. George Forrester and Company
      13. Tower of Cathedral – Nördlingen 
      14. Ingenieria de Puertos en la Roma Clasica
      15. Medios de elevación de materiales en la construcción medieval
      16. Marco Vitruvio Polión
      17. De Architectura
      18. St. Georg (Nördlingen)

 

 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today
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