History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

Decoration and Architects of Chenonceau Castle

You can know the history of a building through the works of its builders. This is the History of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau.

The castle we know today was built on the demolition of an old fortress and a fortified mill owned by the Marques family. From that time only the tribute tower that was modified in the style of the time and its new owners survives. It was built by Thomas Bohier, Intendant General of Finance of King Francisco I of France between 1513 and 1521. The main part is rectangular (50 x 55 meters) where the hallways and rooms are. In charge of overseeing the construction was his wife Katherine Briçonnet, since her husband was busy with the matter in court.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

Gardens and architects of the castle of chenonceau

At the death of Mr. Thomas Bohier the crown ordered an audit of the kingdom’s finances. The results were charges against Thomas Bohier for misappropriating funds against the crown, for which his assets were expropriated. The crown recovered the royal dominion over the castle and at the same time King Francisco I gave it to his favorite Diana de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois.

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As of that moment the destiny of the Chenonceau castle was marked by the presence of six more women. Here we detail them and the brands that they printed until today, the most visited castle in France.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

 

Diana de Poitiers 1499 – 1566

King Henry II gave the Chateau de Chenonceau to his favorite, Diana de Poitiers in 1547. Diana commissioned Pacello da Mercoliano to design and build the gardens, which were the most beautiful of that time. The architect Philibert de l’Orme was entrusted with the task of building a bridge over the cher river in order to extend the gardens to the other shore. Diana de Poitiers managed to get Francisco I of France to settle in the place next to the whole court.

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Catherine de Médicis 1519 – 1589

Henry II, King of France, died of injuries caused accidentally while participating in a tournament in 1559. Catherine de Médicis, wife of the deceased monarch, became the regent of the Kingdom of France, since her children were younger than age. Catherine forced Diana de Poitiers to cede the property of the castle to the crown in exchange for another nearby Chateau: Chaumont-sur-Loire. It expanded the existing gardens and improved the building’s body with reforms.

It was at that time (1576-1577) that the double-story gallery where the parties were organized was built by one of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau: Jean Bullant. The gallery was built on the bridge and is the aspect that can be seen today. From the green cabinet being regent, Catherine de ‘Medici was in charge of the affairs of the Kingdom of France.

It should be noted that the original plans and designs of the gallery belonged to the architect Philibert de l’Orme, who had built the bridge. The gallery is 60 meters long and 6 meters wide. It has 18 Windows, floor of mosaics of tuff and slate, shaped like a chessboard. It was inaugurated in 1577 during the celebrations organized by Catherine de Médicis in honor of her son King Henry III of France.

Luisa de Lorraine 1553 – 1601

Henry III King of France and son of Catherine de Médicis, died in 1589. His wife Luisa de Lorraine retired to the castle of Chenonceau wearing the usual white mourning (label of the time). He lived until his death in the castle almost without leaving it. After Luisa de Lorena there was no more presence of the Crown of France in Chenonceau. It was already in private hands. By inheritance of Luisa de Lorraine the castle was inherited by César de Vendôme and his wife, Francesca de Lorraine, Duchess of Vendôme. For the next 100 years, it was inherited through the Valois family.

Louise Dupin 1706 – 1799

In 1720 it was bought by the Duke of Bourbon who sold them works of art and statues of Chenonceau. Some of them went to the Palace of Versailles. In the summer of 1733, Claude Dupin bought the castle of Chenonceau from the Duke of Bourbon. His wife, Louise Dupin in organized meetings and gatherings with writers, poets and scientists. Voltaire and Rosseau were regular. During the French Revolution and under its administration, Chenonceau was preserved.

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Marguerite Pelouze 1836 – 1902

Marguerite Pelouze bought the Château de Chenonceau in 1867, which at that time had 136 hectares of land. I buy it at 850,000 francs. Then he decided to restore the castle as in the time of Diana de Poitiers. The works were carried out from 1867 to 1878 by the architect Félix Roguet. During this restoration almost all the changes made by Catherine de Médicis were eliminated.

In 1879, Claude Debussy joined the chenonceau orchestra as a pianist, with the purpose of completing the castle’s small chamber orchestra. Debussy spends almost all that summer in Chenonceau. One thinks that the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Gustave Deloye, was the author of the caryatids (Column in the form of feminine sculpture) of the castle.

In 1888, Marguerite Pelouze, already separated from her husband, filed for bankruptcy and sold the Chenonceau castle. Acquired by Crédit Foncier, and sold in 1891 to Mr. José Émilio Terry, deputy of Cuba in the Spanish Cortes. His family will retain the property of castilool until 1913

Simonne Menier 1881 – 1972

The Terry family in 1913 sells Chenonceau to industrial Henri Menier (1853-1913). The Menier family is the owner of the castle today. During the First World War, a hospital for the war-wounded was set up in Chenonceau, funded by Mr. Gaston Menier (1880-1933). Simone Menier, wife of Georges, as head nurse, administered the hospital that installed 120 beds in two of the Galeries of the castle.

In a room in the castle of Chenonceau X-ray machines were adapted an X-ray machine. Also 2,254 soldiers were treated at that hospital during WWI. After the war, the equipment was dismantled and stored for years. Decades later in an auxiliary room of the castle, the hospital was assembled again and turned into a museum

Military Hospital of the Chenonceau Castle

Second World War
The main gallery, the covered bridge that crosses the river Cher, was used during the Second World War by the French resistance. The castle was used for people to escape to Free France, taking advantage of the fact that it was on the border. It turns out that south entrance faced France Vichy “free”. and the rest of the castle was in the area occupied by Nazi Germany.

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The castle during World War II suffered some damages by bombing of both sides, damaging in a total way the windows and vitreaux. These stained glass windows were repaired after the fight was over.

There were several illustrious visitors after its opening to the public in 1952. Among them we can mention the Queen of England Elizabeth II, her son Carlos and Diana Diana, Princess of Wales. Also the president of the United States Harry Truman visited Chemonceau.

In the Castle shop you can buy souvenirs of the visit, books and vintage posters

Summing up The architects of the Castle of Chenonceau, were:

Felix Roguet
Philibert de l’Orme
Jean Bullant
Pacello da Mercoliano

This is a collaboration of the blog quierodecorarte.com, of a note translated from Spanish. The original note can be seen here in Spanish. Part of the images are property of quierodecorarte.com.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau
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Medieval Treadwheel Crane – Beverley Minster

Ancient Crane in Beverley Minster – England

The cranes of wheel ( or Treadwheel Cranes) were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. 

Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane - traveling-cooking
Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane

Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.

Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane - traveling-cooking
Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane

The Minster

Beverley Minster is an English parish church located in Beverley – East Yorkshire. It is undoubtedly one of the largest parish churches in England, being larger than some English cathedrals. It is considered a masterpiece of Gothic art. Also called Minster because in ancient times it was the church of a monastery.

Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane - traveling-cooking
Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane

Construction work began in 1225 and probably lasted almost 200 years. The twin towers of the western façade inspired the design of the present Westminster Abbey – London.

The building was able to survive after the dissolution of the monasteries, between 1536 and 1540, decreed by King Henry VIII of England. The current building retains almost everything except the chapter house.

Beverley-Minster Medieval TreadWheel Crane - traveling-cooking
Beverley-Minster Medieval Treadwheel Crane

To conclude, we will say that the wheel crane is placed on the vault of the central tower, and was driven by two people. The visit to the tower where the medieval wheel crane is done is through guided tours on Saturdays at 11am.

Beverley-Minster Medieval Treadwheel Crane
Beverley-Minster Medieval Treadwheel Crane

There are other Treadwheel cranes in Europe. One of them is in the Cathedral of  Strasbourg – France,  Here I could see the note.

Other Medieval & Romantic castles:

Carcassone – France. Medieval City

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany

External Links:

Friends of Beverley Minster

Lista de las Grúas de Rueda Existentes en Europa

Treadwheel Crane of  Mechelen Cathedral – Belgium

Medieval Treadwheel Crane – Beverley Minster
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The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Historic Evolution of Tourism

Table of Contents

Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
 
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis – Atenas – Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.

They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France)

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
 
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.
 

 

A Bit of Roman History

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
 
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.
 

 

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
 
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
 
There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria, Ostia and Cartago Nova.
 
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia – Saint Remy de Provence – (France)
 
 

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 
 
The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Caton. Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Caton was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
 
Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
 
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)
 

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno – Nimes – (France)

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

 

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France)

End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.
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Quick guide to Travel to France by Car

Travel to France by Car

Table of Contents

 

 Are you planning to make a road trip through France?

  • Do you plan to rent a car in France to get to know the country?
  • Do you want to travel to France by car but have no idea what to do first?
  • What is necessary to travel around France and enjoy it, without having a nervous breakdown?
  • Do you go to another country in Europe and have to cross France by road?
  • Will you need to have an car accident lawyer on standby in case you’re involved in an accident?

Okay. The first thing that is needed is a lot of money. If you have it, stop reading and book a luxury hotel here. This post is not for you.

Now, if you have a more limited budget. This is the right place

Here we go

Automobile club de France

Know what are the rules of circulation in France

If you have ever driven in any foreign country or if it is the first time you do it, you should know that France is a country where you travel in a similar way as in the United States of America. The rules that you must respect are very similar

Accessories for the car and the trip

Leer másQuick guide to Travel to France by Car

Quick guide to Travel to France by Car
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