Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Roman Empire: Routes & Network on Line Calculator

Land and Maritime

Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire.
You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator and Trade Network

 

Choose the place of departure and destination

And press calculate

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt

Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road londinium to coptos

Costs in denarii

In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62
Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29
Per passenger in a car: 2778.04

Cartago Nova to Rome

Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain)  to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network - Cartago nova to Rome

Same route as the previous one but in winter

Cartago nova to Rome in winter

Londinium to Rome in winter and summer

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator:  from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route

29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator - londinium to Rome in winter
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

 

A Little History of Roman Roads

The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before.
He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire.
The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.

The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative.  The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire

 

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Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
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◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Crane
Ancient Rome Crane

 

The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.

Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire

In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.

Pentaspastos

A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.

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The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.

However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?

Ancient Rome Books

Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist

The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.

The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.

 

Marco Vitruvio Polión : Crane & Hoist Architect

(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )

Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.

Ancient Roman Crane engineers
Ancient Roman Crane engineers

In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.

As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.

Roman Cranes = Medieval Treadwheel Cranes

The Roman wheel cranes almost unchanged or modified will be used until the modern age and in some cases until the mid-nineteenth century as in the ports of Germany. Some are still today in their original places of construction. As an example we will put the Cathedral of Strasbourg (France) and the Church Beverley Minster (England)

Vitruvius the ten books on architecture on Amazon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ancient Cranes in Pinterest

A colaboration of : Besthoist.com

 

◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome
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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

1.45 Billion People Travel the World in 2019

By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France, Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.

Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe (both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%). 

madrid Paris People will Travel the World in 2019

Travelers on the Rise Every Year

The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”

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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?
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Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz – Switzerland

Table of Contents – Saint Moritz 

Saint Moritz – Switzerland: Meadows, Snow and Mountains

Saint Moritz (Sank Moritz) , located in the south-east of Switzerland, in the region known as Upper Engadine ,. The site is known worldwide for the celebration here of two winter games: 1928 and 1948.

Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

 

Sankt Moritz (St. Moritz) was mentioned for the first time in the 12th century. It was a village that was formed around springs, which according to beliefs of the time had healing powers. The village is named after Saint Maurice, who according to legend was a martyred Christian in Roman Switzerland.

Bernina Express -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz


History of Saint Moritz

Caspar Badrutt, born in Samedan in 1819, emigrated as a child to Saint Moritz with his family and in 1858 he founded a hotel, antecedent of the current Hotel Kulm. In 1864 according to oral legends, he invited a group of Englishmen to his hotel with the condition that if they did not enjoy it, I would reimburse them for travel expenses. The visitors arrived and stayed more than six months.

Kulm Hotel -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

A city with two dominant colors. White in winter and green in summer. Wet and slippery streets in winter, but with a lot of style and charm. . Impressive landscapes in summer with trails for trekking or excursions. We tell you how to enjoy the Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz


Sports: Summers & Winters

In summer the Saint Moritz lake is full of water and sports activities. The lake it freezes and is also the scene of recreational activities. In 1907 a horse race was run on the frozen lake. They also practice other sports on ice such as polo (on the frozen lake), cricket, hockey and cross-country skiing.

Snow -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

The lower part of the city concentrates the more than 5000 inhabitants of the city. We found the El Badrutt’s Palace, it is a hotel managed by five generations. The hotel opened its doors in 1896 and its creator, was one of the sons of Caspar Badrutt


Walking Saint Moritz

You can visit the town on foot in two hours. We start with Via Maistra, pedestrian in its first part. In this street there is a leaning tower that dates from 1570, although it is only 12 feet high and a slope of about four degrees. It was part of the old church of San Mauricio, destroyed in 1890. In the surroundings there are still some tombs.

City -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

Nearby is the monument to the “crest corridor”, the local sport. It is practiced on a natural snow track that has its starting point where this bronze image is located. The event is held annually every winter since 1885.

The track is built new, every January, is almost one mile long and a slope between 1 and almost 10 degrees and a difference between origin and arrival of 2 yards

City -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

Walking along the Via del Bagn you reach the Engadiner Museum, which allows you to get to know the life of the city in different periods. It is approximately one hour of travel. Price 20 dollars (13 Swiss Francs) and children under 16 years are free. Tuesday closed.


Funicular: Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

On the way to the mountain you can use the funicular railway linking Saint Moritz with the Corviglia ski center. The price is about US $ 60 per person per day. The snow pits of Corviglia are considered one of the most important in Europe. It has options for all levels including children. The Alpina Hütte center, close to the funicular station, closes from April to June.

Funicular -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

On the way back, at the Chantarella transfer station, there is one last attraction. Half a mile away from the station is Heidi’s cabin. Here the film of this child character was filmed. Access is free and the walk to the place does not take more than 30 minutes.


Bernina Express: Panoranic Railway

Another way to enjoy the meadows, snow and mountains in Saint Moritz: Next to the lake Saint Moritz is the railway station. There is the terminal of two panoramic trains. Glacier Express and Bernina Express. Today we are going to talk about the latter because it is what we take to get to sank motitz. We did it from the station of Tirano (Italy).

Bernina Express -Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

After a journey of more than two hours through amazing landscapes, precipices, tunnels, bridges, lakes and snow, you will reach Saint Moritz. It is advisable to do it as much as if you are passing through or hiking. here the pictures of the train trip.


How to get there and where to stay

To Get: from anywhere in the world:

  • Naples or Rome Airport (Italy). Train or Fly to Milan (Italy). From Milan Train to the Main Station of Tirano (Italy) The Bernina Express train departs from that station
  • Zurich Airport (Switzerland). From there train to Chur 1h 15 min of trip and from there to St. Moritz 2h of trip plus the time of connection between trains
  • Web Page Switzerland Raiway
  • Web Page Italian Railway

 

To Stay:

Kulm Hotel or Badrutt’s Palace. Here you can consult on booking Sank Moritz

Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

Enjoy the Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz

 

 

Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz – Switzerland
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