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Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheelcranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Crane in the Port of Luneburg – Germany
The old crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.
The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.
The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load
Anecdotes of the treadwheelcrane
In 1840, the Treadwheel crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time.
As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.
With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons.
Ostricher – Germany
The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop’s privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.
We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.
The Oestricher Wheel Crane is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.
This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.
The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.
Trier – Germany
Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.
The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.
A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain.
It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name “Alte Krahnen” in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.
Andernach – Germany
The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.
The Andernacher Krahnenwas the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.
The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).
The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.
The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called “Kaiserbaum” or “support tree”. Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Germany
It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 “. And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler […] of all Babylon.”)
In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.
The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church’s hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.
As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.
27 most useful travel accessories in 2019: From luggage with tracker to scales to calculate the weight of the bag and adapters for plugs, a guide with objects that every traveler will appreciate at the time of packing. All these articles are designed to save time and money on any trip.
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20 most useful travel accessories in 2019
Most importantly: Quick dry towels, Smart bags, Dehumid underwear, Anti-sand blankets, Motorized luggage that follow a yard to its owner. Folding eyeglasses. Portable sanitary equipment. There are many more accessories to review in the next post.
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In the Argentine Patagonia almost at the end of the world, in a town of 300 inhabitants called Chalten, you can visit glaciers in places that have very little human presence. The walk lasts about 6 hours from the village and you have to take everything to camp, since there is no support there.
To move there you have to take a plane to Buenos Aires (about 9 hours), another plane from Buenos Aires to Calafate (three hours more to the south). And finally in a vehicle (about four hours more) until chalten. All an adventure and an authentic Glacier at The End of the World
View of Cerro Torre and Torre Glacier You can not see the birth of the Glacier because it is more than 30 km from this place. Hiking on the glacier is forbidden. There is no presence of park rangers and control authorities. It is a very aggressive and rugged place,
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You can know the history of a building through the works of its builders. This is the History of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau.
The castle we know today was built on the demolition of an old fortress and a fortified mill owned by the Marques family. From that time only the tribute tower that was modified in the style of the time and its new owners survives. It was built by Thomas Bohier, Intendant General of Finance of King Francisco I of France between 1513 and 1521. The main part is rectangular (50 x 55 meters) where the hallways and rooms are. In charge of overseeing the construction was his wife Katherine Briçonnet, since her husband was busy with the matter in court.
Gardens and architects of the castle of chenonceau
At the death of Mr. Thomas Bohier the crown ordered an audit of the kingdom’s finances. The results were charges against Thomas Bohier for misappropriating funds against the crown, for which his assets were expropriated. The crown recovered the royal dominion over the castle and at the same time King Francisco I gave it to his favorite Diana de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois.
As of that moment the destiny of the Chenonceau castle was marked by the presence of six more women. Here we detail them and the brands that they printed until today, the most visited castle in France.
Diana de Poitiers 1499 – 1566
King Henry II gave the Chateau de Chenonceau to his favorite, Diana de Poitiers in 1547. Diana commissioned Pacello da Mercoliano to design and build the gardens, which were the most beautiful of that time. The architect Philibert de l’Orme was entrusted with the task of building a bridge over the cher river in order to extend the gardens to the other shore. Diana de Poitiers managed to get Francisco I of France to settle in the place next to the whole court.
Henry II, King of France, died of injuries caused accidentally while participating in a tournament in 1559. Catherine de Médicis, wife of the deceased monarch, became the regent of the Kingdom of France, since her children were younger than age. Catherine forced Diana de Poitiers to cede the property of the castle to the crown in exchange for another nearby Chateau: Chaumont-sur-Loire. It expanded the existing gardens and improved the building’s body with reforms.
It was at that time (1576-1577) that the double-story gallery where the parties were organized was built by one of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau: Jean Bullant. The gallery was built on the bridge and is the aspect that can be seen today. From the green cabinet being regent, Catherine de ‘Medici was in charge of the affairs of the Kingdom of France.
It should be noted that the original plans and designs of the gallery belonged to the architect Philibert de l’Orme, who had built the bridge. The gallery is 60 meters long and 6 meters wide. It has 18 Windows, floor of mosaics of tuff and slate, shaped like a chessboard. It was inaugurated in 1577 during the celebrations organized by Catherine de Médicis in honor of her son King Henry III of France.
Luisa de Lorraine 1553 – 1601
Henry III King of France and son of Catherine de Médicis, died in 1589. His wife Luisa de Lorraine retired to the castle of Chenonceau wearing the usual white mourning (label of the time). He lived until his death in the castle almost without leaving it. After Luisa de Lorena there was no more presence of the Crown of France in Chenonceau. It was already in private hands. By inheritance of Luisa de Lorraine the castle was inherited by César de Vendôme and his wife, Francesca de Lorraine, Duchess of Vendôme. For the next 100 years, it was inherited through the Valois family.
Louise Dupin 1706 – 1799
In 1720 it was bought by the Duke of Bourbon who sold them works of art and statues of Chenonceau. Some of them went to the Palace of Versailles. In the summer of 1733, Claude Dupin bought the castle of Chenonceau from the Duke of Bourbon. His wife, Louise Dupin in organized meetings and gatherings with writers, poets and scientists. Voltaire and Rosseau were regular. During the French Revolution and under its administration, Chenonceau was preserved.
Marguerite Pelouze bought the Château de Chenonceau in 1867, which at that time had 136 hectares of land. I buy it at 850,000 francs. Then he decided to restore the castle as in the time of Diana de Poitiers. The works were carried out from 1867 to 1878 by the architect Félix Roguet. During this restoration almost all the changes made by Catherine de Médicis were eliminated.
In 1879, Claude Debussy joined the chenonceau orchestra as a pianist, with the purpose of completing the castle’s small chamber orchestra. Debussy spends almost all that summer in Chenonceau. One thinks that the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Gustave Deloye, was the author of the caryatids (Column in the form of feminine sculpture) of the castle.
In 1888, Marguerite Pelouze, already separated from her husband, filed for bankruptcy and sold the Chenonceau castle. Acquired by Crédit Foncier, and sold in 1891 to Mr. José Émilio Terry, deputy of Cuba in the Spanish Cortes. His family will retain the property of castilool until 1913
Simonne Menier 1881 – 1972
The Terry family in 1913 sells Chenonceau to industrial Henri Menier (1853-1913). The Menier family is the owner of the castle today. During the First World War, a hospital for the war-wounded was set up in Chenonceau, funded by Mr. Gaston Menier (1880-1933). Simone Menier, wife of Georges, as head nurse, administered the hospital that installed 120 beds in two of the Galeries of the castle.
In a room in the castle of Chenonceau X-ray machines were adapted an X-ray machine. Also 2,254 soldiers were treated at that hospital during WWI. After the war, the equipment was dismantled and stored for years. Decades later in an auxiliary room of the castle, the hospital was assembled again and turned into a museum
Military Hospital of the Chenonceau Castle
Second World War The main gallery, the covered bridge that crosses the river Cher, was used during the Second World War by the French resistance. The castle was used for people to escape to Free France, taking advantage of the fact that it was on the border. It turns out that south entrance faced France Vichy “free”. and the rest of the castle was in the area occupied by Nazi Germany.
The castle during World War II suffered some damages by bombing of both sides, damaging in a total way the windows and vitreaux. These stained glass windows were repaired after the fight was over.
There were several illustrious visitors after its opening to the public in 1952. Among them we can mention the Queen of England Elizabeth II, her son Carlos and Diana Diana, Princess of Wales. Also the president of the United States Harry Truman visited Chemonceau.
In the Castle shop you can buy souvenirs of the visit, books and vintage posters
Summing up The architects of the Castle of Chenonceau, were:
Felix Roguet Philibert de l’Orme Jean Bullant Pacello da Mercoliano
The cranes of wheel ( or Treadwheel Cranes) were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist.
Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Beverley Minster is an English parish church located in Beverley – East Yorkshire. It is undoubtedly one of the largest parish churches in England, being larger than some English cathedrals. It is considered a masterpiece of Gothic art. Also called Minster because in ancient times it was the church of a monastery.
Construction work began in 1225 and probably lasted almost 200 years. The twin towers of the western façade inspired the design of the present Westminster Abbey – London.
The building was able to survive after the dissolution of the monasteries, between 1536 and 1540, decreed by King Henry VIII of England. The current building retains almost everything except the chapter house.
To conclude, we will say that the wheel crane is placed on the vault of the central tower, and was driven by two people. The visit to the tower where the medieval wheel crane is done is through guided tours on Saturdays at 11am.
There are other Treadwheel cranes in Europe. One of them is in the Cathedral of Strasbourg – France, Here I could see the note.
Travel planning can be especially stressful for people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) or other health conditions that require oxygen therapy. The following steps can be helpful with the process:
Call your local oxygen supplier one to two weeks in advance to arrange for your oxygen supply while you are traveling. Your needs will vary according to your mode of transportation and length of stay at your destination.
If traveling by air, book far in advance because airlines allow only a limited number of people traveling with oxygen per flight.
Take antiseptic hand-washing packets or gel to help avoid picking up bacterial or viral infections. Also wash hands with soap and water frequently.
If you are traveling to an area of high altitude, plan ahead for an oxygen supply at your destination.
Saint Moritz – Switzerland: Meadows, Snow and Mountains
Saint Moritz (Sank Moritz) , located in the south-east of Switzerland, in the region known as Upper Engadine ,. The site is known worldwide for the celebration here of two winter games: 1928 and 1948.
Sankt Moritz (St. Moritz) was mentioned for the first time in the 12th century. It was a village that was formed around springs, which according to beliefs of the time had healing powers. The village is named after Saint Maurice, who according to legend was a martyred Christian in Roman Switzerland.
History of Saint Moritz
Caspar Badrutt, born in Samedan in 1819, emigrated as a child to Saint Moritz with his family and in 1858 he founded a hotel, antecedent of the current Hotel Kulm. In 1864 according to oral legends, he invited a group of Englishmen to his hotel with the condition that if they did not enjoy it, I would reimburse them for travel expenses. The visitors arrived and stayed more than six months.
A city with two dominant colors.White in winter and green in summer. Wet and slippery streets in winter, but with a lot of style and charm. . Impressive landscapes in summer with trails for trekking or excursions. We tell you how to enjoy the Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz
Sports: Summers & Winters
In summer the Saint Moritz lake is full of water and sports activities. The lake it freezes and is also the scene of recreational activities. In 1907 a horse race was run on the frozen lake. They also practice other sports on ice such as polo (on the frozen lake), cricket, hockey and cross-country skiing.
The lower part of the city concentrates the more than 5000 inhabitants of the city. We found the El Badrutt’s Palace, it is a hotel managed by five generations. The hotel opened its doors in 1896 and its creator, was one of the sons of Caspar Badrutt
Walking Saint Moritz
You can visit the town on foot in two hours. We start with Via Maistra, pedestrian in its first part. In this street there is a leaning tower that dates from 1570, although it is only 12 feet high and a slope of about four degrees. It was part of the old church of San Mauricio, destroyed in 1890. In the surroundings there are still some tombs.
Nearby is the monument to the “crest corridor”, the local sport. It is practiced on a natural snow track that has its starting point where this bronze image is located. The event is held annually every winter since 1885.
The track is built new, every January, is almost one mile long and a slope between 1 and almost 10 degrees and a difference between origin and arrival of 2 yards
Walking along the Via del Bagn you reach the Engadiner Museum, which allows you to get to know the life of the city in different periods. It is approximately one hour of travel. Price 20 dollars (13 Swiss Francs) and children under 16 years are free. Tuesday closed.
Funicular: Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz
On the way to the mountain you can use the funicular railway linking Saint Moritz with the Corviglia ski center. The price is about US $ 60 per person per day. The snow pits of Corviglia are considered one of the most important in Europe. It has options for all levels including children. The Alpina Hütte center, close to the funicular station, closes from April to June.
On the way back, at the Chantarella transfer station, there is one last attraction. Half a mile away from the station is Heidi’s cabin. Here the film of this child character was filmed. Access is free and the walk to the place does not take more than 30 minutes.
Bernina Express: Panoranic Railway
Another way to enjoy the meadows, snow and mountains in Saint Moritz: Next to the lake Saint Moritz is the railway station. There is the terminal of two panoramic trains. Glacier Express and Bernina Express. Today we are going to talk about the latter because it is what we take to get to sank motitz. We did it from the station of Tirano (Italy).
After a journey of more than two hours through amazing landscapes, precipices, tunnels, bridges, lakes and snow, you will reach Saint Moritz. It is advisable to do it as much as if you are passing through or hiking. here the pictures of the train trip.
How to get there and where to stay
To Get: from anywhere in the world:
Naples or Rome Airport (Italy). Train or Fly to Milan (Italy). From Milan Train to the Main Station of Tirano (Italy) The Bernina Express train departs from that station
Zurich Airport (Switzerland). From there train to Chur 1h 15 min of trip and from there to St. Moritz 2h of trip plus the time of connection between trains
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Venice is exceeded by tourists. They arrive by thousands every day and not everyone knows how to behave. If you travel to Venice we recommend you follow these tips to avoid inconveniences and enjoy that wonderful and historic city
In April 2017, the Ministry of Interior of Italy put into effect a so-called “Daspo Urban” law. This law allows police forces to restrict access in certain areas of the localities to individuals considered a possible threat to public order, morals or public decency. This is without necessity without the need for evidence of crime. This applies to vagabonds, but it also began to be applied to tourists within certain areas. Article 9 of the decree establishes a monetary penalty of 100 to 300 euros and an expulsion order from the place where the heho occurred and against any person. This expulsion can be for 48 hours and the recidivism reaches much higher penalties.
Dr. Ugo Rossi, a professor at the University of Turin, highlights how city centers have become places for consumption rather than residence. This phenomenon is leading to a series of citizen fears that lead to these contradictions. The need to tourism as a source of income and at the same time reject it for violating the identity of the city. “Examples like the ‘Daspo Urbano’, have to do on the one hand with fear of safety and, on the other, with fears for the loss of authenticity”, ends Professor Rossi saying
The city of Venice released some barriers(‘Check Point’) to control the entry of tourists entering the city. The municipal police will be ordered to close the entrance to its historic center in case of excess arrivals.
The authorities have located two barriers in the vicinity of the station of Santa Lucia, the only point of arrival by land: one in the Plaza Roma, next to the bridge of Constitution (Ponte della Costituzione), and another in the opposite, before the bridge of the barefoot(Ponte degli Scalzi)
The City of Venice has decided to facilitate the mobility of residents in front of the huge number of tourists visiting the city. It must be taken into account that in the city of Venice (the main islands) there are only 50,000 inhabitants, and that 4,000,000 people visit it per year. At the last Carnival in Venice, more than 200,000 tourists were received.
Overtourism at the Carnival
In the last venice carnival the authorities of Venice restricted the passage to certain zones of the historical center: Only those who have the Venezia Unica Card, a card for residents and habitual visitors, will be able to pass. With this ordinance, tourists will be able to continue visiting the most popular sitesbutthey will have to use alternative streets The fines for those who skip the rules range from 25 to 500 euros.
The commune of Venice will give priority access to the Venetians to take the vaporetto: They are boats of public transport, with terminal station in Santa Lucia with which to move from one point to another of the city and the islands. For that reason in Santa Lucia and other stops more, there will be two rows. One for tourists and another priority for residents. In addition, the price of the trip, about 7.5 euros, will go to 1.5 euros for residents who have a special card.
In recent times there have been a proliferation of groups calling for the banning of cruises and the disembarkation of passengers in the historic center.
Tips to Travel Venice and be a respectful Tourist
Do not use the Selfie stick indoors. Especially churches
Ask as little as possible.
Seven out of ten people who travel through Venice are also tourists. Use your smartphone to navigate with Google Maps or another application (MapsMe or similar) Search the information of the places you are going to visit or stay and download it in your Goodle maps. You can use the information from your phone online or use the GPS of your smartphone
Only eat if you have a place to sit.
Do not sit on the stairs of monuments or churches to eat or drink.
Use the flash for photo only where it is enabled.
Respect the environment and artistic wealth
do not litter,
do not vandalize with graffiti,
Do not give food to the pigeons.
Especially not to throw objects or liquids to the channels
Respect the vaporetto’s tails.
Check if there is one for tourists and another for residents.
Keep in mind that some places have restrictions on clothing. Especially the churches that are many and worth visiting them all.
Take care of your belongings.
Passports, credit cards or anything that carries value or serves to identify it. Thieves exist everywhere in the world.
Do not listen to what other travelers say or advise. Report yourself
Learn basic dialogues of the country you are going to visit:
The attitude of any person changes how they speak in their language. Both the service in the restaurants and your experience in the place will change radically just by knowing the dialogues of survival of the language of the country you visit: presentation dialogues, please and thank you, basic questions and the numbers from 1 to 10. Since you have Two choices of people in your visit: either people hate tourists or people hate tourists who do not try to speak the language. And both can be avoided with knowing the basics of the language, apart it will be easier for you to make friends and know the culture of the place if you know a bit of their language … You will be surprised to know how many people would also like to talk with you
In 2017, the Mayor of Milan established important restrictions in one of the main areas of the city destined for nocturnal nightlife. It is the darsena included in Barrio dei Navigli. It is forbidden to carry plastic bottles, drinks cans and also selfie sticks. The authorities say that the intention is to change the customs of those who come, especially tourists. This measure in a temporary moment, is about to become permanent. Milan is not the only city that is taking measures to restrict the habits of tourists. Or the tourists themselves.
Since April 2017, the mayor of the city of Florence, Dario Nardella, began watering the stairs of the most visited churches during the midday hours. The reason for such an eccentric measure is that tourists take advantage of the stairs to sit and have lunch. He says that the stairs of the temples are not restaurants, but religious and cultural places that deserve respect.
The Mayor of the City of Rome Virginia Raggi, demanded that the Roman monuments be honored by all who visit it. That was when I presented the latest measures to protect the sources of the City of Rome against the maladjusted tourists. Sanctions were established for throwing liquids, and throwing objects at sources. It is only allowed to throw coins. There are also sanctions for eating meals and drinks outside of the authorized places.
Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii, we will answer that question. Pompeii is located in the south of Italy. barely two hours away by train from Rome. The story is quite familiar. The city is located on the slopes of Vesuvius, a volcano that on August 24, 79 AD, broke and buried the city in a sea of ash. More than 20,000 people died in that event. It remained in oblivion until the eighteenth century, when under the domination the location of this city was rediscovered (the name was not even known) and excavations began.
The Excavations Show
Thermal baths, luxury residences, freediving houses, gymnasiums, artisan workshops and brothels were gradually appearing. In those places there were architectural remains such as mosaics, frescoes and sculptures. Some of them almost intact. These findings speak of a sophisticated, well-off and evolved life. We must bear in mind that part of the aristocracy of the Roman era, had its villas in Pompeii and made tourism in that city and on the nearby island of Capri.
Also appeared part of the erotic life of pompeii. frescoes, murals, sculptures, lamps, amulets and even artifacts that we do not yet know their use and meaning.
Wide Freedom of Customs
Touring the streets and houses of Pompeii, the paintings and bas-reliefs with erotic motifs ranging from “Satyr and Maenad” (House of the Faun) or “Pan and the Hermaphrodite” (House of the Dioscuri), Some are sexually explicit as the ” Priapus with his phallus “(House of the Vetii).
The paintings are not limited to private places, such as the lupanar (brothel) or public baths, but can also be seen inside private homes, gardens and public use spaces shared by all. You have in the streets with phalluses signaling the sense of traffic.
Phalluses on The Streets
One of the possible explanations was these images had ritual or religious value, and linked the phallic figures with the force generating or creating nature. They were also used to give good luck to a commercial establishment.
Erotic artifacts were found from the seventeenth century, and accumulated outside the view of the public in the Borbonic Museum (now Archaeological Museum of Naples), where I created a special room to store them.
Gabinetto Segreto – Obscene Objects Cabinet
In 1817 a first selection of artifacts was made to exhibit in the museum. In 1819, King Francis I of the Two Sicilies visited the Pompeii exhibition and the National Archaeological Museum of Naples with his wife and daughter. There he was scandalized with erotic art in such a way that heordered it to be removed from the public view and confined to a secret room. Then the objects classified as obscene and indecent, were confined to the special room without any kind of order and the door was sealed at that time. Only in 1860 the room was opened and the artifacts were inventoried.
The secret room (Gabinetto Segreto in Italian) was opened with a special order obtained only by mature gentlemen of good manners. Also after having paid a large amount of money. In the same ruins of Pompeii, screens were placed on frescoes and obscene paintings and only with special invitation and payment were they shown to select tourists.
Over the years the room remained closed until Giuseppe Garibaldi ordered it to be opened again. That happened in 1860 during the Italian unification and when Garibaldi conquered Naples in that year
In 1866 a catalog of artifacts was published, but from that moment the official censorship of the Kingdom of Italy was restricting access until it was closed, in accordance with the customs and political winds of the moment.
At the time of the Mussolini Dictator visits were forbidden for not agreeing the vision of the new Italy (pure) with obscene artifacts of the ancient Romans. In the Fascist era, it could be visited with express authorization from the Ministry of Education.
The censorship was maintained after the end of the war until 1967, where the work of cataloging and restoring the artefacts of the obscene room was resumed.
The room was definitely reopened to the public since April 2000. While there is no censorship of any kind, there is a legend that warns about the special content of the room. In addition, children under 14 can only enter if accompanied by their parents or teachers
Tips to visit pompeii
Arrive early in the morning. Complete travel takes the whole day.
Wear comfortable shoes. Yes possible trekking shoes.
Most of the streets are made of stone blocks. Be guided when walking.
Head protection Hats, caps.
Take a guide, Arming a tour before going to avoid losing time.If you do not go on a guided tour, check the schedule of the last train to Naples or Sorrento.
How to get to Pompeii
Train to the central station of Naples. Then in the same central station, in the subsoil is the local Trans-Vesuvian train. Ask about the Pompeii- Scavi station. The departure of trains in this station is somewhat chaotic with schedules and cancellations, ask until you make sure. This station has several branches and only one reaches the ruins of Pompeii, You can also take a bus, although we do not recommend it.
Transvesuvian train in the direction of the central station of Naples. Ask about the Pompeii- Scavi station.