◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Crane
Ancient Rome Crane

 

The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.

Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire

In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.

Pentaspastos

A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.

Ereaders


The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.

However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?

Ancient Rome Books

Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist

The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.

The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.

 

Marco Vitruvio Polión : Crane & Hoist Architect

(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )

Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.

Ancient Roman Crane engineers
Ancient Roman Crane engineers

In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.

As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.

Roman Cranes = Medieval Treadwheel Cranes

The Roman wheel cranes almost unchanged or modified will be used until the modern age and in some cases until the mid-nineteenth century as in the ports of Germany. Some are still today in their original places of construction. As an example we will put the Cathedral of Strasbourg (France) and the Church Beverley Minster (England)

Vitruvius the ten books on architecture on Amazon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related Post 

 

Ancient Cranes in Pinterest

A colaboration of : Besthoist.com

 

◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome
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The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis – Atenas – Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.


They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) –

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).
ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line


Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia – Saint Remy de Provence – (France)

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 

The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno – Nimes – (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

 

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France)

End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome


The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.
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AAA Travel 2019

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

There are two versions of AAA Travel: One free and one with membership. To find out if it is convenient or not to be a AAA Travel member, first see the prices. Then compare prices.

All membership plans include the AAA Travel roadside assistance benefit. this gives rights to free towing, replacement of spare tires, depleted battery start and delivery of fuel for your vehicles.

The levels of benefits increase with the hiring of higher price plans. For example, a high plan has a free 100-mile trailer.

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Other Benefits

The benefits of the AAA not only cover roadside assistance but also have additional benefits

Renew the driver’s license and Avoid the DMV

Many of the AAA branches also have driver’s license renewal services. This saves time and money and avoids doing the process in the DMV

Passport photos with discount
Discounts for those who have basic membership. And also free for higher memberships. You can also obtain a passport application. The AAA does not process passports.


International Driver’s License

You can get an international driver’s license (IDP) at any AAA location. You can also send a request by mail. An IDP is an identification document for the driver abroad. It is legal in more than 150 countries and is printed in several languages.
Requirements: valid EE license. UU, two passport size photos on white background and pay the corresponding fee

Rent-a-Car Plans

Offers coupons with discounts through Hertz. It has its own car search engine for rent

Travel insurance

The AAA has several types of travel insurance available, depending on the region of destination. They also offer according to the region insurance for cancellation or interruption of trips

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Other discounts

Discounts on tickets to theme parks such as Walt Disney World, Universal studios and special holiday packages in some regions and also on cruises. Also in trips to Europe you can get benefits in the purchase of train tickets (Rail Europe).

Travel planning

The AAA website also includes reservations for hotels, flights, vacation planning, car rentals. If you contact the AAA branches, they will assist you in booking services for members and also in planning group trips.

Road trips and planning

The traditional benefits of AAA on the road include towing, assistance with flat tires, vehicle lockout service, fuel delivery and more, but there are other AAA travel benefits when it comes to hitting the road.

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Hotels and accommodations with discounts

Using the search engine of AAA and also points are recognized in loyalty programs. The discount hotels are among others: Best Western, Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott and MGM Resorts

Is the AAA Travel membership profitable?

Only If you need a full-service vacation planner and also travel discounts. An agency like AAA Travel can save you time, money and effort. But you should compare if the membership fee is lower than the money savings in the first place. And if apart it saves time and effort, which are also money.

Prices Membership AAA Travel 2019

Prices Membership AAA Travel.

Images are from the web AAA Travel.com

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Arde Lucus 2019 – Roman Festival in Spain

Ancient Rome Festival in Spain: Arde Lucus 2019: 

On June 14, 15 and 16, 2019

Arde Lucus is a festival celebrated in Lugo – Spain. That is celebrated between the end of May and the month of June. Relive the life of the Roman Empire in the old Spanish city of Lugo. This service started in
2001 and fu to commemorate the founding of the city.

 Arde Lucus 2019

In the year 2017 it has been declared a National Tourist Interest Festival by the Spanish State and in its last two editions more than one million participants were reached, of which a third were foreigners

Lucus Augusti

This festival that tries to evoke the ancient Roman city Lucus Augusti of the second century (now Lugo in Spanish territory), began to celebrate as we mentioned in 2001. It should be noted that the old (and magnificent) Roman defensive walls. Over the years, the number of visitors increased to 460,000 participants in 2009, leaving an income of around 10 million euros in the city.

 Arde Lucus 2019
 This celebration is one of the two most important in Europe in terms of the evocation of the Roman Empire. The other is the French city of Nimes, with its spectacular Roman amphitheater, which we will talk about later.

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Arde Lucus 2019 – Roman Festival in Spain
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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

1.45 Billion People Travel the World in 2019

By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France, Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.

Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe (both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%). 

madrid Paris People will Travel the World in 2019

Travelers on the Rise Every Year

The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”

Leer másHow Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

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Nepal Visa & Information for Travelers

VISA INFORMATION

Visa can be obtained on arrival at the Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, at border entry points in Kakadvitta, Birgunj, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Gaddachowki on Nepal-India border and Kodari on Nepal-China border. Visa can also be obtained at the nearest Nepal Embassy or Diplomatic Mission. Visa can also be obtained (renewal purposes) at Department of Immigration, Kalikasthan, Kathmandu.A valid passport and one passport -size photo with a light background is required. Immigration Department has not specified the size of the passport-size photo. 


Visa can be obtained


only through payment of cash in the following currency:Euro, Swiss Franc, Pound Sterling, US Dollar, Australian Dollar, Canadian Dollar, Hong Kong Dollar, Singapore Dollar and Japanese Yen.Credit card, Indian currency and Nepali currency are not accepted as payment of visa fee.
Nepal: Travel Gadgets buy on amazon.com

Tourist Visa

Visa FacilityDurationFee
Multiple entry15 daysUS$ 25 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry30 daysUS$ 40 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry90 daysUS$ 100 or equivalent convertible currency

Free Visa

For first visit in one visa year (January to December) , Free visa for 30 days is available only for nationals of South Asian countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. However, visa can be extended from the Immigration Department on payment of visa fee as specified above. Indian nationals do not require visa to enter into Nepal.
Nepal Visa


For Indian National

Indian nationals do not require visa to enter Nepal. As per the Nepalese Immigration, Indian Nationals Traveling to Nepal must posses any One of the following documents. 1. Passport 2. Driving License with photo 3. Photo Identity card issued by a Government Agency 4. Ration Card with Photo 5. Election Commission Card with Photo 6. Identity Card issued by Embassy of India in Kathmandu 7. Identity Card with Photo issued by Sub- Divisional Magistrate or any other officials above his rankd.

Other Information

Nationals from Nigeria, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Cameroon, Somalia, Liberia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Palestine and Afghanistan will need to obtain visa from Nepal Embassies or Diplomatic Missions in their respective countries, as they do not get visa on arrival at the immigration entry points of Nepal.

Visa Extension Tourists

can stay for a maximum of 150 days in a visa year (Jan 1 to Dec 31).
For further information, please contact:
Department of Immigration
Kalikasthan, Kathmandu
Tel: 00977-1- 4429660 / 4438862 / 4438868/ 4433934
E-mail: mail@immi.gov.np 
Web site: www.immi.gov.np

TRANSPORTATION

There are many buses, minibuses and micro buses available at Ratnapark (Old Bus Park) which depart to different destinations in the valley. Three wheelers run by battery are also available for Kathmandu commuters.

Metered Taxi:

Consult Kathmandu valley map to find out the direction of your destination. Hail a taxi, which is easily recognized by its taxi sign on top and black license plate. As a rough guide, a taxi will charge Rs. 30 per kilometer. No tip is expected. Private taxis may charge slightly higher. Night taxi service can also be arranged and operated by major hotels. Fare is slightly higher than metered taxi. One can rent a private car through a travel agent or a car rental company.

Hired Mountain Bike/ Ordinary Bicycle:

Mountain bikes and ordinary bicycles are cheap and the best form of transportation for economy tourists. One can hire them at Thamel, Rani Pokhari and Jhochhen, all in Kathmandu.

Long Distance Bus Service:

Long distance day or night bus services are available from Kathmandu to all cities of Nepal. New Bus Park at Gongabu at Ring Road near Balaju, Kathmandu, from where buses depart to different destinations. Six-seater Sumo Tata van, 12-seater van and air-conditioned mini buses are also available for long distance travel.

Domestic Air Service:

Nepal Airlines has an extensive network of air services to major parts of the country. Besides Nepal Airlines, other domestic airlines (there are more than 18 in operation) provide regular and chartered services to popular domestic destinations.

Nepal Visa & Information for Travelers
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History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

Decoration and Architects of Chenonceau Castle

You can know the history of a building through the works of its builders. This is the History of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau.

The castle we know today was built on the demolition of an old fortress and a fortified mill owned by the Marques family. From that time only the tribute tower that was modified in the style of the time and its new owners survives. It was built by Thomas Bohier, Intendant General of Finance of King Francisco I of France between 1513 and 1521. The main part is rectangular (50 x 55 meters) where the hallways and rooms are. In charge of overseeing the construction was his wife Katherine Briçonnet, since her husband was busy with the matter in court.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

Gardens and architects of the castle of chenonceau

At the death of Mr. Thomas Bohier the crown ordered an audit of the kingdom’s finances. The results were charges against Thomas Bohier for misappropriating funds against the crown, for which his assets were expropriated. The crown recovered the royal dominion over the castle and at the same time King Francisco I gave it to his favorite Diana de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois.

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As of that moment the destiny of the Chenonceau castle was marked by the presence of six more women. Here we detail them and the brands that they printed until today, the most visited castle in France.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau

 

Diana de Poitiers 1499 – 1566

King Henry II gave the Chateau de Chenonceau to his favorite, Diana de Poitiers in 1547. Diana commissioned Pacello da Mercoliano to design and build the gardens, which were the most beautiful of that time. The architect Philibert de l’Orme was entrusted with the task of building a bridge over the cher river in order to extend the gardens to the other shore. Diana de Poitiers managed to get Francisco I of France to settle in the place next to the whole court.

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Catherine de Médicis 1519 – 1589

Henry II, King of France, died of injuries caused accidentally while participating in a tournament in 1559. Catherine de Médicis, wife of the deceased monarch, became the regent of the Kingdom of France, since her children were younger than age. Catherine forced Diana de Poitiers to cede the property of the castle to the crown in exchange for another nearby Chateau: Chaumont-sur-Loire. It expanded the existing gardens and improved the building’s body with reforms.

It was at that time (1576-1577) that the double-story gallery where the parties were organized was built by one of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau: Jean Bullant. The gallery was built on the bridge and is the aspect that can be seen today. From the green cabinet being regent, Catherine de ‘Medici was in charge of the affairs of the Kingdom of France.

It should be noted that the original plans and designs of the gallery belonged to the architect Philibert de l’Orme, who had built the bridge. The gallery is 60 meters long and 6 meters wide. It has 18 Windows, floor of mosaics of tuff and slate, shaped like a chessboard. It was inaugurated in 1577 during the celebrations organized by Catherine de Médicis in honor of her son King Henry III of France.

Luisa de Lorraine 1553 – 1601

Henry III King of France and son of Catherine de Médicis, died in 1589. His wife Luisa de Lorraine retired to the castle of Chenonceau wearing the usual white mourning (label of the time). He lived until his death in the castle almost without leaving it. After Luisa de Lorena there was no more presence of the Crown of France in Chenonceau. It was already in private hands. By inheritance of Luisa de Lorraine the castle was inherited by César de Vendôme and his wife, Francesca de Lorraine, Duchess of Vendôme. For the next 100 years, it was inherited through the Valois family.

Louise Dupin 1706 – 1799

In 1720 it was bought by the Duke of Bourbon who sold them works of art and statues of Chenonceau. Some of them went to the Palace of Versailles. In the summer of 1733, Claude Dupin bought the castle of Chenonceau from the Duke of Bourbon. His wife, Louise Dupin in organized meetings and gatherings with writers, poets and scientists. Voltaire and Rosseau were regular. During the French Revolution and under its administration, Chenonceau was preserved.

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Marguerite Pelouze 1836 – 1902

Marguerite Pelouze bought the Château de Chenonceau in 1867, which at that time had 136 hectares of land. I buy it at 850,000 francs. Then he decided to restore the castle as in the time of Diana de Poitiers. The works were carried out from 1867 to 1878 by the architect Félix Roguet. During this restoration almost all the changes made by Catherine de Médicis were eliminated.

In 1879, Claude Debussy joined the chenonceau orchestra as a pianist, with the purpose of completing the castle’s small chamber orchestra. Debussy spends almost all that summer in Chenonceau. One thinks that the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Gustave Deloye, was the author of the caryatids (Column in the form of feminine sculpture) of the castle.

In 1888, Marguerite Pelouze, already separated from her husband, filed for bankruptcy and sold the Chenonceau castle. Acquired by Crédit Foncier, and sold in 1891 to Mr. José Émilio Terry, deputy of Cuba in the Spanish Cortes. His family will retain the property of castilool until 1913

Simonne Menier 1881 – 1972

The Terry family in 1913 sells Chenonceau to industrial Henri Menier (1853-1913). The Menier family is the owner of the castle today. During the First World War, a hospital for the war-wounded was set up in Chenonceau, funded by Mr. Gaston Menier (1880-1933). Simone Menier, wife of Georges, as head nurse, administered the hospital that installed 120 beds in two of the Galeries of the castle.

In a room in the castle of Chenonceau X-ray machines were adapted an X-ray machine. Also 2,254 soldiers were treated at that hospital during WWI. After the war, the equipment was dismantled and stored for years. Decades later in an auxiliary room of the castle, the hospital was assembled again and turned into a museum

Military Hospital of the Chenonceau Castle

Second World War
The main gallery, the covered bridge that crosses the river Cher, was used during the Second World War by the French resistance. The castle was used for people to escape to Free France, taking advantage of the fact that it was on the border. It turns out that south entrance faced France Vichy “free”. and the rest of the castle was in the area occupied by Nazi Germany.

Related post : Discovering a Medieval City: Carcassone

The castle during World War II suffered some damages by bombing of both sides, damaging in a total way the windows and vitreaux. These stained glass windows were repaired after the fight was over.

There were several illustrious visitors after its opening to the public in 1952. Among them we can mention the Queen of England Elizabeth II, her son Carlos and Diana Diana, Princess of Wales. Also the president of the United States Harry Truman visited Chemonceau.

In the Castle shop you can buy souvenirs of the visit, books and vintage posters

Summing up The architects of the Castle of Chenonceau, were:

Felix Roguet
Philibert de l’Orme
Jean Bullant
Pacello da Mercoliano

External Links

 

This is a collaboration of the blog quierodecorarte.com, of a note translated from Spanish. The original note can be seen here in Spanish. Part of the images are property of quierodecorarte.com.

History of the Architects of the Castle of Chenonceau
5 (100%) 4 vote[s]

Few Places That Hate Tourists – Tourismphobia

Tourists Go Home !!

This is a job where information is collected about the problem of tourism impact in some places. In some cities rational precautions are taken: But in others (very few) an alarming syndrome develops. The turismo-phobia.  The turism-phobia. Here is the information that could gather, more personal experiences having personally visited four of those places.

Barcelona Hate Tourist

Barcelona – Spain

Ada Colau shortly after taking office as mayor in 2015: “We do not want the city to become a cheap souvenir shop”. He put Venice as an example. The freezing of licenses for all the new hotels and apartments for holiday rentals, the fines for AirBnb, the projects for new tourist taxes and the studies to limit the number of visitors are the reasons that this blog uses to include in this list. 

Leer másFew Places That Hate Tourists – Tourismphobia

Few Places That Hate Tourists – Tourismphobia
5 (100%) 3 vote[s]

BBQ Grill Outdoor 2019

BBQ Grill Outdoor 2019 Pellets & Propane

 

Grill Pellet

Grill and Outdoor Smoker 2019 New Model with Stainless Steel.

BBQ Grill Outdoor Camping

  • Set it and forget it, Automated electric feed system maintains temperature from 180ºF to 450ºF, Smart Digital Controller keeps temps within +/- 20 degrees F and makes setting the grill temperature as easy as turning a dial
  • HUGE GRILLING AREA & HOPPRT CAPACITY!— Great for Home, party, and Tailgating: 513 sq in Main rack & 187 sq in Warm Rack, 20LB Hopper Capacity that can accommodate up to 20 burgers, 5 whole chickens, or 6 racks of ribs
  • Ultimate 6 in 1 Barbecue Wood Fire Pellet Grill—–Grill, smoke, bake, roast, braise, barbeque food all in one grill . Great Smoke Favor not only grill easier-,-Fueled by premium 100% hardwood pellets to generate heat and smoke, infusing your food with a savory wood-fire taste that’ll make your taste buds sing

Grill Liquid Propane & Natural Gas

Grills LJ Built-in BBQ Grill 

  • Heavy Duty 304 Stainless Steel Frame
  • Liquid Propane Gas Grill
  • Three Heavy Duty Stainless Steel Burners
  • 60,000 BTU Output
  • Sear Burning Briquette System

Pellet Grill and Outdoor Smoker 

New Model with Stainless Steel Lid (Patio Cover Gift),700 SQ inches

 

  • HEAVY DUTY MATERIAL!—304 Stainless Steel grill lid & Rustproof Grill Rack
  • 3 YEARS WARRANTY—-Seller’s 100% satisfactory is our goal – Amazon.com


Weber 46510001 Spirit E310 Liquid

Propane Gas Grill

  • Three stainless Steel burners put out 32, 000 BTU-per-hour
  • 424 -square inch of cooking area and 105 -square inch for warming
  • Porcelain-enameled, cast-iron cooking grates and porcelain-enameled Flavorizer Bars
  • Electronic crossover ignition system starts with the push of a button
  • Assembled dimensions with the lid open 63-inch by 52-inch by 32-inch
  • BBQ Grill Outdoor 2019 – Best seller in 2018!

 

Related post

 


 

BBQ Grill Outdoor 2019
5 (100%) 2 vote[s]

11 Very Useful Travel Accessories for Women in 2019

Travel Accessories for Women in 2019

There are many gadgets that make travel more enjoyable for girls Here I show you several travel gadgets for women, something that can not be missing in your suitcase when traveling. Enjoy them, the post and your trip. Enjoy the purchase at Amazon.com.  

Adidas Women’s Edge Lux w Running Shoe

very Useful Travel Accessories for Women 2019 - adidas Women's Edge Lux w Running Shoe,

  • Several and different colors
  • Textile. Imported
  • Rubber sole
  • Shaft measures approximately mid-top” from arch
  • Weight: 8 oz. (size 7); Runner type: neutral
  • BOUNCE™ provides energized comfort for all sports, all day
  • Synthetic shape-shift upper for color changing, knitted look; Sock-like construction for snug fit
  • Mesh sidewall overlays offer extra support; Offers wide and skinny laces for customizable look; Women’s-specific fit
  • Rubber outsole provides secure traction
  • very comfortable shoe to wear on a trip
 

Leer más11 Very Useful Travel Accessories for Women in 2019

11 Very Useful Travel Accessories for Women in 2019
4 (80%) 1 vote[s]

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today

Five Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheel cranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.

Crane  in the Port of Luneburg – Germany

The old crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Germany – Port of Luneburg

The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.

The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load

Anecdotes of the treadwheel crane

In 1840, the Treadwheel crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time. 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Port of Luneburg

As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – port of Luneburg

With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons. 


Ostricher – Germany

The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop’s privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.

We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.

The Oestricher Wheel Crane is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Oestricher Kran en Rheingau 1744
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Oestricher Kran en Rheingau 1744

This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.

The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.


Trier – Germany

Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.

The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.
 
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Trier
 

A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain. 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Trier

It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name “Alte Krahnen” in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.


Andernach – Germany

The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier- Andernach alter-krahnen
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany – Trier- Andernach alter-krahnen

The Andernacher Krahnen was the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.

The Crane

The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).

The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.

The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called “Kaiserbaum” or “support tree”. Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.


Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Germany

It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 “. And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler […] of all Babylon.”)

 

Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen - Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany

In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.

The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church’s hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.

As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.

Maybe it interests you too: Medieval Treadwheel Crane in England– Beverley Minster

 References and Bibliography

      1. Friends of Beverley Minster
      2. Legende van de Maneblussers
      3. National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk 
      4. Alter Kran (Lüneburg)
      5. Abbaye du Mont-Saint-Michel – Cage à écureuil
      6. Historic England Org.- The Harwich Treadwheel Crane
      7. Grua de Rueda de la Catedral de Estrasburgo
      8. Medieval Treadwheels: Artists’ Views of Building Constructions –  The Johns Hopkins University Press
      9. Surrey Industrial Hiistory Group – Guilford
      10. Denkmalgesellschaft Bingen – Oestricher Kran
      11. The privatisation of the Brunswick State Railways in 1869-70
      12. George Forrester and Company
      13. Tower of Cathedral – Nördlingen 
      14. Ingenieria de Puertos en la Roma Clasica
      15. Medios de elevación de materiales en la construcción medieval
      16. Marco Vitruvio Polión
      17. De Architectura
      18. St. Georg (Nördlingen)

 

 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today
5 (100%) 2 vote[s]

9 Accessories for Camping and Outdoor 2019

Practical Camping & Outdoor Accessories in 2019

Table of Contents – Accessories for Camping & Outdoor 2019  

In this first post about camping and outdoor accessories, the most useful and common ones were selected. If the article you need is not found here, please access it by the nearest category. Enjoy the purchase at  Amazon.com

Here are five more useful camping and outdoor accessories for 2019. From microfiber towels, a Small Wine-Beer Portable Cooler, a Collapsible Water Bottle, to a Functional Portable Lightweight Hammock. Also lightweight backpacks also applicable for sports.


Camping & Outdoor Portable Cooler

Wine Beer Portable Cooler. 5+ Hours Cold Drinks. Insulated Slim Travel Cooler. Lightweight

Portable cooler - Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019


Collapsible Water Bottle

Perfect Accessories for Camping & Outdoor | Leak Proof | BPA Free | Food-Grade Silicone – 14oz 

Collapsible Water Bottle - Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019
Collapsible Water Bottle

Travel Microfiber Towel

Fast Drying Super Absorbent Beach Towel – Body Hand Face Towels For Women Men

Travel Microfiber Towel - Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019


Lightweight Backpack Water Resistant

Lightweight Backpack Water Resistant Outdoor Sports Daypack with Rain Cover for Hiking Running Cycling Biking Climbing and Hunting 

Lightweight Backpack Water Resistant - Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019


Accessories for Camping & Outdoor : Hiking Backpack Travel

Hiking Backpack Travel Daypack Waterproof. Backpack Outdoor Sports Daypack with Rain Cover for Climbing, Camping, Mountaineering, Fishing, Traveling, Cycling, or  Skiing. Ideal for outdoor in National Parks

Hiking Backpack Travel- Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019


Mini Water Filtration System

Ideal for outdoor recreation, hiking, camping, scouting, domestic and international travel and emergency preparedness

Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019


Emergency Survival Gear Kit

For Outdoor Adventure Like Hiking, Camping, Travel–Wilderness Survival Kit-Essential EDC Kit Come With A Military Headscarf

Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019 - Emergency Survival Gear Kit-For Outdoor Adventure


Portable Espresso Machine

Wacaco Minipresso GR,  Compatible Ground Coffee, Small Travel Coffee Maker, Manually Operated from Piston Action – Travel Gadget 2019 Star!

portable espresso machine - Travel Gadgets 2019


The North Face Mens JacketThis image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is The-North-face-Jacket.jpg

 

Enjoy the Accessories for Camping and Outdoor in 2019 at: 

  1. Yosemite National Park California
  2. Yellowstone National Park
  3. National Park service

See:

  1. Most Useful Travel Accessories in 2019
  2. Travel Accessories for Women

9 Accessories for Camping and Outdoor 2019
5 (100%) 2 vote[s]

A Glacier at The End of the World

Glacier Laguna Torre – Chalten – Argentina

In the Argentine Patagonia almost at the end of the world, in a town of 300 inhabitants called Chalten, you can visit glaciers in places that have very little human presence. The walk lasts about 6 hours from the village and you have to take everything to camp, since there is no support there.

To move there you have to take a plane to Buenos Aires (about 9 hours), another plane from Buenos Aires to Calafate (three hours more to the south). And finally in a vehicle (about four hours more) until chalten. All an adventure and an authentic Glacier at The End of the World

Amazing Mountain Torre & Laguna Torre Glacier at The End of the World + Add New Category

 

View of Cerro Torre and Torre Glacier You can not see the birth of the Glacier because it is more than 30 km from this place. Hiking on the glacier is forbidden. There is no presence of park rangers and control authorities. It is a very aggressive and rugged place,


Leer másA Glacier at The End of the World

A Glacier at The End of the World
4.7 (93.33%) 3 vote[s]

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019 – Useful & Practical

Outdoor Survival Gear

13 in 1 Outdoor Survival Gear Tool. Kit with Survival Bracelet, Fire Starter, Emergency Blanket, Flashlight, Whistle – Ideal for Hiking, Climbing, Camping. 

Everything You Need  for Extreme  Experiences

This survival equipment has all the tools that a person needs in extreme conditions. This survival kit includes a lighter, survival bracelet, scraper, carabiner, Swiss stainless steel card, tactile flashlight, emergency blanket, whistle, tactical ballpoint pen, wood cutter, compass and black box.

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019

Glass Breaker

Tactical pen is designed for breaking car glass, also use it for self defense and normal writing. 

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019 - Tactical pen

 

Outdoor Survival Gear

The military knife with black cold steel blade and black aluminum handle is anti-rust and durable

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019 - Tactical knife

 

This outdoor survival gear has an ideal size: Lightweight, waterproof and also compact equipment. 

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019 - Wire saw

The dimensions of the box are 4.1 x 1.8 x 6.3 inches. Box with tools inside weighs 0.98 pounds

Outdoor Survival Gear - Saber card

 

Get real protection and outdoor shelter with our survivor supplies. Our 6-IN-1 paracord bracelet has an embedded compass, fire starter, emergency knife & whistle.

Outdoor Survival Gear - paracord bracelet

 

whistle

Our aluminum alloy whistle creates sound as loud as 120db, built with a high frequency double tube so you will be heard by rescuers from faraway

Outdoor Survival Gear - Whistle

Perfect birthday and Christmas gift for hiking, Trekking, climbing.

 

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019: It fits without problems in a backpack, car or boat.

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019 - Fire Starter

 

Maybe you are interested:

Travel Accessories 2019

Best Travel Women Accessories

Camping & Outdoor  Accessories

Outdoor Survival Gear 2019 – Useful & Practical
4.5 (90%) 2 vote[s]