Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker & Guide

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker & Guideline

Original Post : New York Times

Researchers around the world are developing more than 165 vaccines against the coronavirus, and 27 vaccines are in human trials. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker & Guideline
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker & Guideline

Work began in January with the deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The first vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, but the road ahead remains uncertain. Some trials will fail, and others may end without a clear result. But a few may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus.

Here is the status of all the vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines still being tested in cells or animals. For an overview of different Covid-19 treatments, see our Coronavirus Drug and Treatment Tracker.

 

The Vaccine Testing Process

The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to clinic.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

PRECLINICAL TESTING: Scientists give the vaccine to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces an immune response.

PHASE I SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety and dosage as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.

PHASE II EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety and ability to stimulate the immune system.

PHASE III EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus. In June, the F.D.A. said that a coronavirus vaccine would have to protect at least 50% of vaccinated people to be considered effective.

APPROVAL: Regulators in each country review the trial results and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not. During a pandemic, a vaccine may receive emergency use authorization before getting formal approval.

WARP SPEED: The U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed program is expected to name five or more vaccine projects to receive billions of dollars in federal funding before there’s proof that the vaccines work. We will update the tracker and label the Warp Speed projects when there is an official announcement.

COMBINED PHASES: Another way to accelerate vaccine development is to combine phases. Some coronavirus vaccines are now in Phase I/II trials, for example, in which they are tested for the first time on hundreds of people. (Note that our tracker would count a combined Phase I/II trial as both Phase I and Phase II.)

Genetic Vaccines

Vaccines that use one or more of the coronavirus’s own genes to provoke an immune response.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

Moderna RNA Vaccine


Moderna develops vaccines based on messenger RNA (mRNA) to produce viral proteins in the body. They have yet to bring one to the market. In March, the company put the first Covid-19 vaccine into human trials, in partnership with the National Institutes of Health. The trials yielded promising results, after which Moderna and N.I.H. researchers carried out a Phase II study before launching a Phase III trial on July 27. The final trial will enroll 30,000 healthy people at about 89 sites around the United States. The government has bankrolled Moderna’s efforts with nearly $1 billion in support.
Updated July 27

US National Parks

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

BioNTech

PHASE II PHASE III COMBINED PHASES

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker


The German company BioNTech has entered into collaborations with Pfizer, based in New York, and the Chinese drug maker Fosun Pharma to develop their mRNA vaccine. In July, they posted preliminary results from their Phase I/II trials in the United States and Germany. They found that the volunteers produced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, as well as immune cells called T cells that respond to the virus. Some volunteers experienced moderate side effects such as sleep disturbances and sore arms. On July 27, they announced the launch of a Phase II/III trial with 30,000 volunteers in the United States and other countries including Argentina, Brazil, and Germany.

The Trump administration awarded a $1.9 billion contract for 100 million doses to be delivered by December and the option to acquire 500 million more doses. If approved, Pfizer said they expect to manufacture over 1.3 billion doses of their vaccine worldwide by the end of 2021.
Updated July 27

Imperial College London Vaccine

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES


Imperial College London researchers have developed a “self-amplifying” RNA vaccine, which boosts production of a viral protein to stimulate the immune system. They began Phase I/II trials on June 15 and have partnered with Morningside Ventures to manufacture and distribute the vaccine through a new company called VacEquity Global Health. The researchers expect to know if the vaccine is effective by the end of the year.

Zydus Cadila

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila has created a DNA-based vaccine. On July 3 they announced approval to start human trials, becoming the second company in India to enter the Covid-19 vaccine race after Bharat Biotech.
Updated July 3

Osaka University – DNA Vaccine

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES

On June 30, the Japanese biotechnology company AnGes announced they had started safety trials on a DNA-based vaccine, developed in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio.
Updated July 2

US National Historic Sites

US National Monuments

Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES


The California-based company Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore have developed an mRNA vaccine. The “self-replicating” design of the molecules in the vaccine led to strong immune responses in animal experiments. On July 21, Singapore approved their application for a Phase I/II trial in humans.
Updated July 21


Inovio Vaccine

PHASE I

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

On June 30, the American company Inovio announced they had interim Phase I data on their DNA-based vaccine. They found no serious adverse effects, and measured an immune response in 34 out of 36 volunteers. They plan to start Phase II/III trials this summer.
Updated July 3

CureVac

PHASE I

In March, the Trump administration unsuccessfully tried to entice CureVac to move its research from Germany to the United States. In June, the company launched Phase I trials of its mRNA vaccine. The company said its German facility can make hundreds of millions of vaccine doses a year.
Updated June 17

Genexine

PHASE I

The Korean company Genexine started testing the safety of a DNA-based vaccine in June. They anticipate moving to Phase II trials in the fall.
Updated June 24

Military Medical SciencesSuzhou Abogen Biosciences

PHASE I


In June, Chinese researchers at the Academy of Military Medical SciencesSuzhou Abogen Biosciences and Walvax Biotechnology announced they would start their country’s first safety trials on a mRNA-based vaccine, called ARCoV. Earlier studies on monkeys reportedly showed protective effects.
Updated June 26

SANOFI Vaccine

PRECLINICAL


The French pharmaceutical company Sanofi is developing an mRNA vaccine in partnership with Translate Bio. On June 23, they announced they were planning Phase I trials in the fall.

Viral Vector Vaccines

Vaccines that use a virus to deliver coronavirus genes into cells and provoke an immune response.

Coronavirus Vaccine Guide
Coronavirus Vaccine Guide

 

ChAdOx1 AstraZeneca – Oxford Vaccine

PHASE II PHASE III COMBINED PHASES


vaccine in development by the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus called ChAdOx1. Their Phase I/II trial, reported on July 20 in the journal Lancet, found that the vaccine was safe, causing no severe side effects. It raised antibodies against the coronavirus as well as other immune defenses. The vaccine is now in a Phase II/III trial in England, as well as Phase III trials in Brazil and South Africa. The project may deliver emergency vaccines by October. AstraZeneca has said their total manufacturing capacity for the vaccine, if approved, stands at two billion doses.
Updated July 20

Zion National Park

National Mall

CanSino Biologics

PHASE II LIMITED APPROVAL


The Chinese company CanSino Biologics developed a vaccine based on an adenovirus called Ad5, in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences. In May, they published promising results from a Phase I safety trial, and in July they reported that their Phase II trials demonstrated the vaccine produced a strong immune response. In an unprecedented move, the Chinese military approved the vaccine on June 25 for a year as a “specially needed drug.” CanSino would not say whether vaccination would be mandatory or optional for soldiers.
Updated July 20

 

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES


A decade ago, researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston developed a method for making vaccines out of a virus called Adenovirus 26, or Ad26 for short. Johnson & Johnson developed vaccines for Ebola and other diseases with Ad26 and have now made one for the coronavirus. In March they received $456 million from the United States government to support their move towards production. Johnson & Johnson launched Phase I/II trials in July, with hopes of making up to a billion doses in 2021.
Updated July 27

Gamaleya Research Institute

PHASE I


The Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia’s Ministry of Health, launched a Phase I trial in June of a vaccine they call Gam-Covid-Vac Lyo. It is a combination of two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26, both engineered with a coronavirus gene. In July, the chair of the upper house of Russia’s Parliament announced the country may start vaccine production by the end of the year.
Updated July 24

Novartis Vaccine

PRECLINICAL


The Swiss company Novartis will manufacture a vaccine based on a gene therapy treatment developed by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Hospital. A virus called an adeno-associated virus delivers coronavirus gene fragments into cells. Phase I trials are set to begin in late 2020.

Merck  – Iavi Vaccine

PRECLINICAL


The American company Merck announced in May it would develop a vaccine from vesicular stomatitis viruses, the same approach it successfully used to produce the only approved vaccine for Ebola. The company is partnering with IAVI and has received $38 million in support from the United States government.
Updated July 27

Merck – Themis Bioscience

PRECLINICAL


Merck is also working with Themis Bioscience, an Austrian firm it is acquiring, to develop a second vaccine, which will use the measles virus to carry genetic material into patients’ cells.
Updated June 17

Vaxart’s vaccine 

PRECLINICAL

Coronavirus Vaccine Guide

Vaxart’s vaccine is an oral tablet containing an adenovirus that delivers coronavirus genes. They are preparing for Phase I trials this summer.
Updated June 26

Protein-Based Vaccines

Vaccines that use a coronavirus protein or a protein fragment to provoke an immune response.

 

Anhui Zhifei Longcom

PHASE II


In July, the Chinese company Anhui Zhifei Longcom began Phase II trials for a vaccine that is a combination of viral proteins and an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. The company is part of Chongqing Zhifei Biological Products and has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
Updated July 10

 

Novavax

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES


Maryland-based Novavax has developed a way to stick proteins onto microscopic particles. They’ve created vaccines for a number of different diseases using this platform; their flu vaccine finished Phase III trials in March. The company launched trials for a Covid-19 vaccine in May, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations has invested $384 million in the vaccine. On July 6, Novavax announced a U.S. government award of $1.6 billion to support clinical trials and manufacturing. If the trials succeed, Novavax expects to deliver 100 million doses for use in the United States by the first quarter of 2021. Plants in Europe and Asia would be able to satisfy more of the world’s demand.
Updated July 7

Clover Biopharmaceuticals

PHASE I


Clover Biopharmaceuticals has developed a vaccine containing a protein from coronaviruses. To further stimulate the immune system, the vaccine is being given in conjunction with so-called adjuvants made by British drugmaker GSK and the American company DynavaxInvestments from CEPI will support the development of manufacturing that could lead to the production of hundreds of millions of doses a year.

 

Vaxine

Coronavirus Vaccine Guide

PHASE I

The Australian company Vaxine launched a Phase I trial in July. Their vaccine combines viral proteins with an adjuvant that stimulates immune cells.
Updated July 1

 

Canada-based Medicago

PHASE I

Canada-based Medicago, partly funded by the cigarette maker Philip Morris, uses a species of tobacco to make vaccines. They deliver virus genes into leaves, and the plant cells then create protein shells that mimic viruses. In July, Medicago launched Phase I trials on a plant-based Covid-19 vaccine in combination with adjuvants from drug makers GSK and Dynavax. If the trial goes well, they plan to start Phase II/III trials in October.
Updated July 20

Medicago

PHASE I


A vaccine from Australia’s University of Queensland delivers viral proteins altered to draw a stronger immune response. The university launched Phase I trials in July, combining the proteins with an adjuvant made by CSL. If the results are positive, CSL will advance late stage clinical trials and expects to make tens of millions of doses.
Updated July 14

Kentucky BioProcessing

PHASE I


A second tobacco-based vaccine is in development at Kentucky BioProcessing, an American subsidiary of British American Tobacco, the maker of Lucky Strike and other cigarettes. Like Medicago, Kentucky BioProcessing engineers a species of tobacco called Nicotiana benthamiana to make viral proteins. The company previously used this technique to make a drug called Zmapp for Ebola. After preclinical testing in the spring, they registered a Phase I trial for their coronavirus vaccine in July.
Updated July 20

Baylor College of Medicine

PRECLINICAL


After the SARS epidemic in 2002, Baylor College of Medicine researchers began developing a vaccine that could prevent a new outbreak. Despite promising early results, support for the research disappeared. Because the coronaviruses that cause SARS and Covid-19 are very similar, the researchers are reviving the project in partnership with the Texas Children’s Hospital.

 

PittCoVacc

PRECLINICAL


A vaccine in development by the University of Pittsburgh, called PittCoVacc, is a skin patch tipped with 400 tiny needles made of sugar. When placed on the skin, the needles dissolve and deliver virus proteins into the body.

 

SANOFI – mRNA

PRECLINICAL


In addition to their mRNA vaccine, Sanofi is developing a vaccine based on viral proteins. They are producing the proteins with engineered viruses that grow inside insect cells. GSK will supplement these proteins with adjuvants that stimulate the immune system. Sanofi received a grant of $30 million from the United States government in support of the research. In July the drug makers reached an agreement with the British government to provide up to 60 million doses if the vaccine succeeds in trials. Sanofi has said it could potentially produce at least 600 million doses a year.
Updated July 29

Whole-Virus Vaccines

Vaccines that use a weakened or inactivated version of the coronavirus to provoke an immune response.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

Inactivated virus

Sinopharm

PHASE III

After finding that an inactivated virus vaccine was safe and provoked an immune response, the state-owned Chinese company Sinopharm launched Phase III trials in July in the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi’s health minister was the first volunteer to be injected, and 15,000 people were scheduled to participate in total. In July, the chairman of Sinopharm told Chinese state media that the vaccine could be ready for public use by the end of the year.
Updated July 24

 

CoronaVac

PHASE III

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

The private Chinese company Sinovac Biotech is testing an inactivated vaccine called CoronaVac. In June the company announced that Phase I/II trials on 743 volunteers found no severe adverse effects and produced an immune response. Sinovac then launched a Phase III trial in Brazil in July. The company is also building a facility to manufacture up to 100 million doses annually.
Updated July 6

 

Institute of Medical Biology 

PHASE II

 


Researchers at the Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, which has invented vaccines for polio and hepatitis A, started a Phase II trial of an inactivated virus vaccine in June.
Updated June 23

Covaxin

PHASE I PHASE II COMBINED PHASES


In collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology, the Indian company Bharat Biotech designed a vaccine called Covaxin based on an inactivated form of the coronavirus. When the company launched Phase I/II trials in July, reports circulated that the vaccine would be ready by August 15. But the C.E.O. of Bharat told reporters it would be available no sooner than early 2021.
Updated July 20

North Korea’s State Commission of Science

PHASE I ?

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

On July 18, North Korea’s State Commission of Science and Technology announced on their web site that they had started clinical trials on a vaccine based on part of the coronavirus spike protein. It’s hard to independently determine how much truth there is in the claim from the isolated dictatorship. The commission claimed to have tested the vaccine on animals, but provided no data. What’s more, it stated that effectiveness trials would have to be carried out in another country “since there is no case of Covid-19 in DPR Korea.” That’s a claim outside experts find highly doubtful.
Updated July 20

 

Original Post New York Times

 

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