- 1 The Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages
- 2 Fall of the Roman Empire
- 3 Goodbye to Roman Tourism
- 4 Leisure & Tourism in Middle Ages
- 5 Via Francigena
- 6 Pilgrimage to Rome
- 7 Way of St. James: Pilgrimage to Compostela
- 8 Pilgrimage to Tours
- 9 Pilgrimage to Meca
- 10 Kinds of pilgrimage - Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages
- 11 How did you travel during the Middle Ages?
- 12 History of Tourism in Middle Ages: Conclusions
The Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages
Fall of the Roman Empire
History of Medieval Tourism - How did you travel in the Middle Ages?:The fall of the Roman Empire plunged the European continent into a period of great confusion and disorder. For a time there was also an almost permanent state of war between the barbarian chiefs, who had invaded the ancient Roman empire. This contributed to the weakening of all forms of centralized government power.
- There was a distribution of the population very different from the previous one.
- Until thefall of the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean Sea concentrated the life of the ancient world.
- The seaway facilitated commerce and travel in general. Tourism also in Roman times
In the medieval era, however:
- Breaking of the communication between east and west
- Civilization extended to northern Europe and the British Islands
The transition from ancient to medieval culture during the High Middle Ages, took place gradually and almost imperceptibly. Roman economy, social organization and art inevitably declined. One of its consequences was the transfer of the population to rural areas.
Prevalence of agriculture and large properties: that was the main characteristic during the high middle ages. Only land ownership conferred wealth and power.
Goodbye to Roman Tourism
The practice of tourism was abandoned. Most hedonistic customs too. There were transfers to hot springs that continued to explode. These were installed in abbeys or monasteries managed by religious orders that kept the facilities in good conditions of use.
One of the characteristics of the High Middle Ages was the sedentary nature of the population.
- Feudal lords who locked themselves in their castles and only departed to neighboring fiefs on brief war excursions or pillage.
- Servants, for whom all kinds of trips were impossible.
- The Middle Aged man never left his place of residence. Vasallaj's system, closed economies and even internal customs acted as a brake on displacement and trade.
There was no tourism in the Middle Ages as in Roman times. But, the Church had a transcendent role in all aspects of daily life. His action transcended the spiritual to also cover the social, the cultural and even public affairs.
The Greek ideal of leisure moved to the monasteries, for for many the essence of the early Christian religion was to live to get closer to God. It Was considered sin the accumulation of wealth or the same work to obtain them.
Leisure & Tourism in Middle Ages
When the political and social situation consolidated, a powerful social group formed by Lords appeared. This was a higher level of society, which adopted an attitude of exhibitionist leisure.
As in the middle ages there was no printing press, most people did not receive education. The few who had the opportunity and the desire to learn had to travel to have new knowledge.
Leisure of the Lords
History of Tourism in Middle Ages: The leisure exhibition showed his release from the need to work. The leisure of the Lords was the expression of their opposition to servile work, and by putting it in evidence as many times as possible they reaffirmed their membership in the aristocratic class.
Popular leisure, meanwhile, while present, was not free. It was the activity of the days of rest and celebration. Usually religious and related to the patron saint of the place or the great religious festivities. The leisure of the lower classes was organized and controlled by power, that is, the Lord and the Church.
The Religious Tourism in Midlle Ages
Pilgrimage to Rome
One of the main medieval pilgrimage routes led to Rome. The ultimate goal of the pilgrims was to reach the basilica of St. Peter and visit the graves of St. Peter and St. Paul. Rome had numerous churches with more relics of saints and martyrs of antiquity. The pilgrims visited almost all of them.
This route starts from the visit of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Sigerico el Serio at the end of the 10th century. Many pilgrims read their writings with the description of the stages of this trip.
The pilgrimage to Rome will decline at the time of the crusades and It will be partly displaced by the pilgrimage to Compostela - Galicia - Spain. Santiago de Compostela shows himself as a saint very close to the faithful who visit him because of the many miracles he performs in his tomb in Galicia.
Only from the year 1300, with the institution of the jubilee for part of Boniface VIII, Rome will once again attract the attention of Pilgrims In the following centuries it will be the main destination and focus of attention of the faithful pilgrims and religious tourism
Way of St. James: Pilgrimage to Compostela
The road to Santiago ( Way of St. James) is to this day a tourist circuit, one of the oldest and busiest in the world, maintains its essence and the feelings of those who come from all over the world to make a pilgrimage.
Compostela, in chronological order is the last of the great pilgrimage centers to emerge, from the ninth century. And it will become one of the most important pilgrimage centers of medieval Christianity, she was going to venerate the tomb (supposed) of the apostle Santiago.
The pilgrimage to Compostela will be motivated not because James came and preached to Spain, but because of the spread, throughout Christianity, of the news of the discovery of the apostle's grave. It turns out that the West, if we except Rome, does not have any other apostolic tomb. It also adds what every sacred place needed to become popular.
History of Tourism in Middle Ages: The Holy Healer
The fame that the apostle Santiago acquires as a holy healer explodes religious tourism in the middle ages. Pilgrims are set in motion by stories about the priests of the Saint. Compostela Cathedral in Spain is a new destination in its own right. And compete with Rome.
The Codex Calixtinus, a work of the twelfth century, indicates four routes that cross France, become a single way on Spanish soil, to reach Compostela.This place is called Puente la Reina. This route is integrated to other different pilgrimage routes in the road that leads to Compostela and whose destination is Rome, Tours or Jerusalem.
Santiago de Compostela becomes the most famous sanctuaries in the west whose goal is to visit the tomb of the Apostol. This Saint surpasses all other saints for his healing properties, because Santiago, like several centuries before San Martin de Tours, heals everything.
It even surpasses it in the number of diseases it cures because Santiago is the one who returns the sight to the blind, the ear to the deaf, the voice to the mute, life to the dead. It also heals people of all diseases for the glory and praise of Christ.
Pilgrimage to Tours
In the early years of the Middle Ages the tomb of St. Martin in the Cathedral of Tours ( France) was within religious pilgrimage and tourism. Especially since the sixth century. He is a saint admired by the Frankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty, which makes him the center of the pilgrimage of the Frankish world.
For the people of the early medieval times no other Saint had a power similar to Saint Martin. Is the friend of God and as collected by Codex Calixtinus, in the twelfth century, he has a reputation as a resuscitator, as a curator of leprosy, of the energum, lunatics and the demonized.
In the city of Tours, the people set out to seek the cure of all kinds of diseases. In fact, in the devotion of the faithful, Saint Martin goes through being a holy healer, specialized in curing diseases such as blindness, paralysis, deafness, fever, plague and muteness.
It also causes the lame to walk rights, and by ridding the possessed by the devil, the snake venom is overcome and the elements of nature obey him. Around Tours the pilgrimage begins to make sense penitential. He goes to the tomb of St. Martin to fulfill a penance through which to obtain forgiveness of sins.
Pilgrimage to Meca
One of the pillars of Islam is the visit to this center of worship. He established himself with the writing of the Quran at the death of Muhammad (632). Any Muslim with sufficient physical and economic conditions must go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his life.
The rituals to follow vary depending on where the individual comes from, the time of the year, the variant of Islam professed by the pilgrim, or the intentionality of the pilgrimage
Kinds of pilgrimage - Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages
This was the beginning. Devotional or curiosity: to know and venerate the holy places, the tombs of the martyrs. Without particular interest to travel, pray and know.
It is about seeking the cure of any kind of illness or evil. The christian Europe of the High Middle Ages will be marked by the places, sanctuaries or cathedrals where the intervention of the holy healers was to be sought. all to get rid of some physical or spiritual evil
From the eleventh century, the pilgrimage also acquires a penitential sense. It is carried out by imposition to purge public or private sins, more or less scandalous, committed by the laity or clergy. This is a type of public penance
To exchange a penalty the civil or religious authority imposed this method. Among other sins that were punishable by judicial pilgrimage, there were the murder and theft of ecclesiastical goods.
In the last medieval centuries, XIII-XIV centuries, the Church, due to the excesses of many penitents, begins to restrict its use. What were the excesses? in the next section we clarify
It is due to the influence of Germanic civil law in the penitential system. By paying money to a substitute person a penalty could be redeemed. It was called devotional or penitential redemption.
This practice was used by the rich and noble who through money bought the spiritual merits inherent in the pilgrimage without having to suffer the inconveniences of the road. This way you could pay the price of a murder or a robbery, with no consequences other than money
How did you travel during the Middle Ages?
Land travel followed the old network of Roman roads (at this time very deteriorated), which began to be rehabilitated towards the 12th century and locally. Road maps were seldom used, which began to be disseminated recently in the 14th century. Oral information was the most used and used to be the most valid and up-to-date.
It was common to travel in groups and with a lot of cargo: merchandise, food, feed, weapons, tools, shops, clothes, money, documents, etc. The pilgrims traveled lighter in luggage. Traveling was expensive: porters, adequate clothing, tolls, tips, accommodation, meals, doctors, etc.
Wine and beer were the most recommended drinks to consume during a trip. The water was not drinkable, especially in the cities. Vehicles were hardly used, since cars were useful for traveling short distances. In long distances due to the state of the roads they were not practical. And there was no post system or places for arrangements
Saddle animals were widely used: horse, mule or donkey. It avoided the fatigue of walking, allowed loading and was well adapted to rustic roads. He never galloped, not even trotted.
For long journeys between coastal cities, the sea route was preferred to the land route as it was faster and more comfortable (for example between Marseille and Venice). In the Mediterranean, coastal navigation was widely practiced, that is, without losing sight of the mainland. This allowed them to take refuge in the ports in case of bad weather.
They used to sail especially in summer (preferably in June and July) when the sea is calmer. The most common methods of keeping the course were, during the day, the position of the sun and the release of embarked birds and, at night, the stars.
In the late Middle Ages, various scientific advances were disseminated among European navigators that facilitated navigation at height and with few scales. Most of them were introduced by Islamic sailors: the Latin triangular sail (12th century), the compass (around 1200), the stern rudder (13th century) and the first maritime charts (13th century). The astrolabe and the quadrant did not become widespread until the 15th century.
Genoese and Venetian merchants traded with the Far East, but did not do so directly, but through intermediaries in Asia Minor who bridged the ships and caravans of the Silk Road. In the late Middle Ages, the only regular passenger service in the entire Mediterranean was the galley that annually made the journey from Venice to the Holy Land loaded with pilgrims.
Across The Rivers
Some of the continental routes that we do today by road could be made by river (for example along the Rhone, the Ebro, and the Rhine). River navigation required the payment of tolls and was used above all for goods. River navigation complemented very well, both with maritime navigation and with land routes.
History of Tourism in Middle Ages: Conclusions
Trade begins to grow causing people to move from one place to another for commercial and religious purposes. Also the conquests, the improvements of the roads (Roman roads were still used) and the trails facilitated tourism for those scholars and pilgrims who went from one place to another.
While tourism in the middle ages was not very important, it is for current tourism. Many constructions; Cathedrals, Churches, Castles are today great tourist attractions. The Middle Ages has left us a unique historical and architectural legacy, worth preserving for future generations.
References - Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages
- The Vatican : spirit and art of Christian Rome The MET
- Codex Calistinus ( amazon.com)
- The City od God - Saint Augustine
- The Confessions: The Works of Saint Augustine
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