These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.How was the tourism in ancient time?
How was the tourism in ancient time?
Tourism and travel in ancient times, short or long distances was an important and dangerous business. It required careful planninMost of the trips were made for religious reasons, war, diplomacy, health reasons or training in schools of scholars. They also go to festivals such as the Olympic Games or the Dionysian Games.
Traveling in ancient times: Slaves & Tourism
In Ancient Rome free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.
Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious.
During Roman Empire, the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins). These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.
Travel in Ancient Rome: A Bit of Roman History
During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima. The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae. It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.
The Roads in the Ancient Roman Empire
How were the Roads Built in Ancient Rome?
The Romans built three types of strategic roads (viae): the so-called
- Stratis Lapidibus (Paved)
- Injecta Glarea (Affirmed)
- Terrenea (Flattened)
Viae publicae - Public Roads
What were the Viae publicae (Public Roads) in Ancient Rome?
The main roads of the Empire are called viae Praetoriae, viae Militari or viae Consulares. It was the State that was in charge of its construction, but the cities and the owners of the areas crossed by these roads had to guarantee its maintenance. The average found for the width of the public roads was 6 to 12m.
Viae Vicinales - Neighborhood Roads
What were the Viae Vicinales (Neighborhood Roads) in Ancient Rome?
They started from public roads and allowed several Vicus in the same region to be joined together. They were the majority of the routes of the network. The average width of a viae vicinalis was about 13 feet.
Viae privataes, Rusticae, Agrariae - Private Roads
What were the Viae privataes (Private Roads) in Ancient Rome?
They united the main properties, the villae, with the viae vicinales et publicae. They were private, reserved for the exclusive use of the owner who financed it in its entirety. The average width of a Viae Privata (Private Roads) was 8 to 13 feet
The roads were initially used to facilitate the advance or displacement of the Roman legions. Of course they were also used for administrative, commercial and tourist purposes. The main roads were financed by the State, and the secondary roads were paid for by the affected municipalities. Along the roads, every 20 or 25 Roman miles, mansions, resting places and also for changing horses were built.
There are documents that provide data on the existing road network in times of the Roman Empire, the best known is the "Itinerarium Provinciarum Antonini Augusti", known as the Itinerary of Antonino, from the year 280, of unknown author. It collects the 372 most important roads from Rome to the furthest points of the Empire, recording the existing mansions and the distances between them, totaling about 60,000 Roman miles
How Were The Roman Roads Built?
The main construction group was made up of the works Manager (Curator Operis), the Contractor, (Maceps), the Engineer, (Architectus), the Specialized workers (Cementarius) and the Bricklayers, (Structures).
To level the land they used excavation tools. They cut two parallel furrows with an Aratrum (Plow) 40 feet apart; These furrows were the Fossae (ditches) and they allowed to know the conditions of the subsoil. If it was not adequate, it was replaced or repaired, or wooden piles were driven into it.
Once the bottom was consolidated, a layer of sand 0.5 feet thick called Pavimentum was added in which the stones of the Statumen were embedded with a thickness that varied depending on the state of the soil from one to two feet.
The Stones - Built Roads in Ancient Rome
The agglomeration of the stones was done with lime or clay. After the statumen, a second layer called Rudus was placed. This layer used to be almost a foot thick and was composed of pebbles or small stones, plastered with lime mortar and compacted with the pavicula or rammer.
The third layer was the so-called Nucleus, which consisted of gravel concrete and slaked lime. It was consolidated with a roller, (Cylindrus), and its thickness varied from the ends of 1 foot to 1.5 feet. The next layer was the Summa Crusta or Summun Dorsum. This layer was placed on top of the previous one before it set. The cape could be made with blocks of polygonal stones with regular or irregular shape, (Opus Incertum). In other cases the layer was made of concrete with shale blocks placed on edge or simply gravel. The total thickness of the roadway was 3 to 5 feet and its width between ditches was 4 feet.
It also had lateral edges 1.5 feet high and 2 feet wide supported by the statumen, on which the Centurion (infantry officer) walked. From time to time, stones called Gradus were placed on the road, which was a pedestal that was used to climb on horseback. There were also stones called miliarii, milestones, which marked the distance every thousand Roman steps,
Bridges & Tunnels
When necessary, bridges were built and tunnels dug for the continuation of the road. In that case, more sophisticated tools were used such as Roman wheel cranes that lifted up to two tons. This type of crane was used in the Middle Ages and even some cranes survived until the 19th century. Here you can find information about the Roman wheel cranes in Germany, France and England, which can be seen today
That it was a Roman Mile?
In ancient Rome the Roman mile was equivalent to the distance traveled in a thousand steps (in Latin: mille passus, plural: milia passuum). For the Romans, one step was equivalent to two steps of the current ones, since they considered the stride as a complete cycle: the distance traveled by one of the feet after resting on the opposite foot. In turn, a passus was equivalent to five Roman feet. The Roman mile (milia passum in Latin) is 5,000 Roman feet and equals 1,481 meters in the decimal metric system and 0.92 United States miles
There is an online application called Statio Orbis, which calculates the distance between different places of the Roman Empire. It includes land and sea routes, both in winter and in summer. You can read Orbis's note here
The Roman Ways Today
Very few and very few sections have survived. They are found sporadically in museums or outdoors in countries such as Italy, Spain, England, France and some countries in Africa.
Remember that when traveling you must comply with the TSA Rules when using airports within the United States
What Places did Tourism go to in Ancient Rome?
The Roads in Ancient Rome Were for Military Use?
In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism. Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.
Julius Caesar, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany) to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.
How Were the Roads in Ancient Rome?
How Much it Cost Per Mile to Travel in the Roman Empire?
Why Were There Stones on the Side of the Roads in the Roman Empire?
The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies
--SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS--
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents
Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping
Luggage Samsonite Store
Ship to Philippines
Religious Tourism and Roman Sex Festivities
One reason why the citizens of the Roman Empire mobilized were the religious festivals, to worship a certain god in particular. Some of these parties ended in sex parties, so it could be said that sex tourism already existed in the time of the Romans.
The following were the best known Roman Sex Festivities
It was one of the rituals of ancient Rome and with more sexual charge, whose purpose was the exaltation of fertility. It was celebrated every February 15 they were held around the Palatine Hill.
Its name derives from lupus (wolf), in reference to Fauno Luperco, Romanization of the irrigation god Pan, god of forests, agriculture and grazing. Luperco was the god of fertility and unbridled male sexuality, endowed with great potency and sexual appetite. More information
Tito Livio assures that the cult of Dionysus originates from the regions of Etruria and Campania. In Etruria originally the cult was secret, diurnal, and celebrated only by women, on March 16 and 17 in the sacred forest of Semele, behind the docks, near the Aventine.
Although this cult underwent important changes after the leadership of Paculla Annia, allowing the initiation into the cult of adolescent men under twenty years of age, although the prohibition to participate in the Bacchanalia was still in force for the rest of the men. In these rites an initiation oath was given to safeguard the secret and sacred unity of the group.
According to the data provided, the initiates, after passing a stage of chastity and abstinence, could be integrated into the famous Bacchic rituals, where they drank and danced in a frenzied atmosphere, with shouts and ritual possessions. We are described how married women possessed by the god Bacchus ran frantically disguised as Maenads.
It also seems that all kinds of lustful acts, both heterosexual and homosexual, took place at the bacchanalia at a time when homosexuality had not yet spread among sober Roman society. More information.
The Floraria was a Roman festival that was celebrated in honor of Flora, goddess of spring, vegetation and fertility in general. This festival was celebrated between April 28 and May 3, and symbolized the renewal of the cycle of life, which is why it became a party of a happy and relaxed nature, marked by dances, drinks and flowers.
She is considered one of the protective divinities of prostitutes since her cult was very popular among Roman prostitutes and during their festivities, they took on great prominence. More information.
Travel in Ancient Rome: Non-Religious Tourism
They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler's name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.
The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)
Travel in Ancient Rome & Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii
The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.
The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.
The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those country places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.
Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens.
On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today's day
Travel in Ancient Rome: Amphitheaters for all
The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.
They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France). That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.
During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself
The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) , where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.
Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).
Is there a Roman Empire Roads Calculator?
Yes. Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire. You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes
Choose the place of departure and destination
And press calculate
Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt
Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
How much did it cost to travel in the Roman Empire?
Costs in denarii > In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62 , Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29, Per passenger in a car: 2778.04
How much did it cost to travel in the Roman Empire from Carthage Nova to Rome?
Cartago Nova ( Cartagena - Spain) to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Same route as the previous one but in winter
How much did it cost to travel in the Roman Empire from Londinium to Rome in Winter and Summer?
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator: from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route. 29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.
A Little History of Roman Roads
The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before.
He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire.
The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.
The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic commercial or administrative. The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire
Related Post & References
- Stanford University Calculator RR
- History of Ancient Tourism : Roman Empire
- Roman Treadwheel Crane: Evolution of the Cranes
- Medieval Treadwheel Cranes
- Travel Gadgets: Power bank and more...
Travel in Ancient Rome: Related Post
End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Rome