Venice Walking Map

Venice Two Days Walking Map Map of the most visited places in Venice – Venice Two Days Walking Map – Places of interest in Venice. The most visited. The most amazing and fun     Venice Photos     Leaning Towers in Venice   Related Post Venice two days: first day Venice two days: second day Pompeii Erotic Samsonite Luggage Louis Vuitton Purses  

Discovering Venice in two days: Second day

Discovering Venice in Two Days

Venice Map
Venice Map. Click to see in Goocle maps

Venice in Two Days: Murano and Burano Islands

On the second day we took a boat Vaporetto in San Marcos square. Previously we acquired a full day ticket that includes all the routes throughout the day. Our destination is the islands of Murano and Burano

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Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines 

A collaboration of Marty Martinez

The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.

From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.

1866

2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God Philippine Resealed Coin

As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route.  Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.

Circulated coins,  were also circulated after 1828, which for different reasons, arrived on the island. It should be noted that the Spanish monetary system at that time was adopted by all American countries (including the United States and Canada). Also some countries of Africa, and it meant what today is the dollar-USA monetary system. Denominations of the currencies of the new countries were also made in Reals.

Peruvian Republic - Lima

Coins Resealed. by Fernando VII for its circulation in Manila (8 reales). resealed of 1828 on 8 reales of the Peruvian Republic, Lima, 1828, assayer JM

Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Republic of Chile

 Chile Republic : Over 1 Peso  1834. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Peru - Lima

Philippine Currency 1833. Columns resealed. Republic of Peru. 8 reales. Lima. 1833.  Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4) assayer M

Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin


 

1834. Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin Under Crown, eal de a 8 de Perú 1834, Lima MM. MBC
1834. Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin Under Crown, eal de a 8 de Perú 1834, Lima MM. MBC

 

 

Bolivian Republic - Potosi

Bolivian Republic. 8 soles. Potosí. 1833. LM. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4)

Assayer LM

Republic of Bolivia - Coins Countermarked Philippines

 

Republic of Mexico - Guanajuato

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. Guanajuato. 1830. MJ. Researched by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1834-7). Assayer MJ

Mexican republic - Philippine Resealed Coin
Mexican Republic - Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Mexico - Durango

 Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. 1828. On an 8 reales of Durango of 1828. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Mexico Durando - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines


See another resealed coins: Museu  Nacional D´Art de Catalunya

From 1810….

From 1810 the independentistas minted coins with types clearly differentiated from the Spaniards. As the American currencies of all securities circulated through the territory of the Philippines, the authorities realized the negative effect that these currencies could have there. Therefore, on October 13, 1828, the Captaincy General decreed that all coins should be resold with the following type:

On the obverse, the coat of arms of Spain with the legend; ENABLED BY KING N. S. D. FERN. Vii.

On the reverse, MANILA with the corresponding year that is almost always 1828.

see: Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

Design of Coins - Assayers

Design was completed with a series of grooves engraved.  on the obverse die that in principle would erase any trace of Republican legend. This was not so, this first type is known as type I and the same were coined the year 1828 and the very rare of 1830. From the year 1829 we know a 8 escudos.

The reverse remained the same but from the obverse disappeared any legend or drawing leaving only the coat of arms. Dr. Pablo I. de Jesus de Manila has written a study on this series for which he has found about 400 different copies.

Clearing the Revolutionary - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Past On October 13, 1828, D. Mariano Ricafort, Captain General of the Philippine Islands, a division of the Viceroyalty of Mexico, issued an edict introducing a system of marking the weights and ounces of gold produced by the “insurrect provinces and revolutionary governments “Of the South American continent. Thus, infamous words, such as “Republic”, “Independent” and “Free”, were eliminated.

The heavy machinery of the mint smoothed the designs of the offending coins and attempted to eliminate any trace of the original coin by minting “Manila -1829” on one side and the Spanish coat of arms on the other, with the legend “Enabled by King N.S.D. Fernando VII “and surrounded both wedges by a wide sawed edge.

Medal Carlos III  1782 

José Gabriel Gil  Assayer

Carlos III of Spain - Philippine Resealed Coin
Carlos III of Spain Medal

Local authorities clung to the hope that with these methods they could prevent the spread of the announcement of “Union and Freedom” carried out nineteen years earlier by the rebel provinces of Río de la Plata.

  • “Union y Fuerza”, proclaimed ten years before By “Independence of Chile,” issued thirteen years earlier by Nueva Granada.
  • “Por la Virtud y la Justicia,” proclaimed a decade earlier by Peru,.
  • “Libre, Cresca, Fecundo” spread by the Central American Republic ( Guatemala ) only eight years ago , And the even more recent declaration of sovereignty of Bolivia “Libres por la Constitucion”.

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Circulation only in Phlipines

These coins did not circulate in Spain,  and they did until its replacement by a currency of the Kingdom that is shown below. The mint of Manila only coined throughout its history copper (between 1728 and 1835 and the year 1861). Because this weight, in quantity of six million pieces and with types equal to the hard ones of Puerto Rico of 1895, was carved in Madrid, and transported to the Philippines where it circulated until in 1904 it was withdrawn from circulation by the American authorities.

1861 - Inauguration of Manila's Mint House - Philipines

 1861 Isabel 2a Queen of Spain. Medal


With Alfonso XIII the last pieces destined to Ultramar are minted with the values ​​of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents of weight. In addition, the so-called “alfonsino weight” is emitted in two issues, one of 1897 destined to circulate in the Philippines and another one of 1895 to circulate in Puerto Rico.

The latter had a divider of 40 cents. The “alfonsino weight” is equivalent to the 5 pesetas  of the Metropolis. Alfonso XIII was king of Spain between 1886 and 1931, dying in the Roman exile in 1941.

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1868 Isabel 2a instead of II, Queen of Spain. Coins Countermarked Philippines

Coins Countermarked Philippines


Philipine Coin Manila 50 Cents 1880 - Alfonso XII 

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1880. Alfonso XII King of Spain. Coins Countermarked PhilippinesCoins Countermarked Philippines

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Alfonso XII  – Coined Manila 20 Cents 1885

Spain – Coined Manila 20 Cents in weight. 1885. SGV (Arturo Sandoval and Antonio García González, assayers, Remigio Vega Vega, judge of Balance). Coins Countermarked Philippines

Philippine Resealed Coin

GUAM - 1899 Philippine Resealed Coin

In the year 1899, to leave testimony of the occupation of the island, the admiral of the fleet American F. V. Green used a countermark on Philippine island weights that contained the word "GUAM" and the year of occupation

GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines
GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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Tips to Travel Venice and be a respectful Tourist

 

Survive the Overturism in Venice

Venice Puzzle Jigsaw
Venice Puzzle Jigsaw

Overtourism

Venice is exceeded by tourists. They arrive by thousands every day and not everyone knows how to behave. If you travel to Venice we recommend you follow these tips to avoid inconveniences and enjoy that wonderful and historic city

Tips to Travel Venice and be a Respectful Tourist. Survive the Overturism

In April 2017, the Ministry of Interior of Italy put into effect a so-called “Daspo Urban” law. This law allows police forces to restrict access in certain areas of the localities to individuals considered a possible threat to public order, morals or public decency. This is without necessity without the need for evidence of crime. This applies to vagabonds, but it also began to be applied to tourists within certain areas. Article 9 of the decree establishes a monetary penalty of 100 to 300 euros and an expulsion order from the place where the heho occurred and against any person. This expulsion can be for 48 hours and the recidivism reaches much higher penalties.

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Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

Numismatic:  Argentine Ancient Coins

After the pronouncement of May 1810, Buenos Aires and the other provinces of the Río de la Plata began the campaign of independence, sending expeditions to the High Peru, focus of realistic resistance. The Argentines took the Imperial Villa of Potosi with their mint. Coins were minted in 1810, 1813 and 1815: the last two occupations were important from the monetary point of view, since the type that was issued until then with the real bust and Hispanic emblems – was changed by new coins that bore the symbols patriotic Union and Freedom. The same happened in the Philippines with coins minted in America, which were countermarked

Mint of Potosi

Potosi (for Argentine). Rio de la Plata. 1813  –  J Jose Antonio de la Sierra ( Assayer)

 

2 Reales
Argentine Ancient Coins

8 Reales

 

The patriotic victory of Salta in February 1813, left the free passage to the Argentine Auxiliary Army under the command of General Manuel Belgrano on May 7 of that year occupy Potosí. This city had been evacuated by March 10.  The Casa de Moneda was the object of greater attention, rehabilitating it, as the realists had plundered it by destroying materials, books and documents. In Buenos Aires, the General Constituent Assembly receives a draft from the Deputy Dr. Pedro J. de Agrelo that proposes, as an eminently political measure, the minting of an independent type of currency. The only alterations of the seal, replacing in the open dies the Spanish shield and the royal bust of Fernando VII by the seal of the Assembly and by the May sun.

1815

  

8 Soles

Law 21 carats. 875 thousandths, weight: 27 grams. Fine gold: 23.6 grams. Edge: oblique grooving. Approximate module: 35 mm. There are 8 (eight) known copies in different museums. Shield with cannons and Drum


These First Boins of Argentina

Were coined in gold in the values ​​of 8, 2 and 1 escudos, and in silver in 8, 4, 2, 1 and ½ reales. There is no proof that shields of four have been sealed. Many officers of the Mint fled and for this reason they had to ascend to junior officers. Almost all were not trained enough to exercise the new positions, having committed many faults.

For example, the 2nd officer Pedro Venavidez was promoted to Mayor coiner and the office of assayer was entrusted to José Antonio de Sierra. It began with the minting of silver coins at the end of June. The pieces of gold are today of great rarity; Silver minting, on the other hand, was abundant in all values.

1815

Potosi ( For Argentine).Rio de la Plata.     F Francisco Jose de Matos & Leandro Ozio

  

8 Soles (Gold)

(S) SOL replaces the Spanish Coin (S) Escudo (SHIELD) in 1815


They show on the obverse a radiant sun, with eyes, nose, mouth and thirty-two straight and flamboyant rays alternating. The circular legend begins with PROVINCES OF THE RIO DE LA PLATA and continues on the other side with UNION AND FREEDOM. On the back there is a national emblem  then seal of the Assembly – without sun and simple silver coins; with trophies formed by two crossed cannons, two side flags and a drum at the foot in the gold ones.

Argentine. 8 Reales Mint of La Rioja (RA) Assayer P

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. Mint  of La Rioja,

1826

  
They also have the PTS monogram that identifies the Potosi mint. The initial J. corresponds to the assayer José Antonio de Sierra. The song of the silver coins has the shape of laurel leaves, while that of the gold pieces is obliquely striated.

 

The last delivery of Coins was made on November 18, 1813, the same day that General Belgrano began his strategic withdrawal to Jujuy after the defeat in the Battle of Ayohuma. Many of the offices of the Casa de Moneda were destroyed with the purpose of depriving the Spanish Realists of a quick issuance of Coins, who only on December 9 could restart the coinage with the bust of Fernando VII.

1815

Potosi (For Argentine).Rio de la Plata.     L Leandro Ozio (Assayer)

 

8 Reales


On December 22, 1813, a notice was published, ordering the exchange of all the coins that were sealed for the Provinces of the Río de la Plata by those that had the bust of the King, giving a term of three days to the neighbors of the Villa Imperial de Potosi and three months to the neighbors of the nearby Provinces. But the population was reluctant to surrender, foreseeing a new occupation of Argentine troops. That happened in April of 1815; then the units commanded by General Jose Rondeau reconquered Potosi and the old mint again coined national currencies. On this occasion only pieces of silver were issued with the value in reais. Then, in the middle of the same year, a similar series was developed but with the value expressed in soles.

 

 

The change coincided with the entry into operation of a new assayer, as it was not possible to count on Sierra, who had acted in 1813. Because of this circumstance, the reals of 1815 show the initial F. corresponding to Francisco José de Matos.
In the denominated currencies soles of the same year, the F. appears accompanied of an L. by Leandro Ozio. Both improvised assayers and for that reason the coins of 1815 are of lower quality than fine established in the ordinances.


The qualified engraving revolutionary authorities could not find either, because they fled they fled with the king’s troops and the office of minting had to be improvised with subordinate and amateur personnel. In this regard, spelling errors are noted in the pieces of 8 reales, knowing one copy coined with the word PRORVINCIAS and another with PROVICIAS.

The coins of 1815 are more abundant than those of 1813. Their coinage ceased with the defeat of General Rondeau in the Battle of Sipe-Sipe and the evacuation of Potosi which fell again into the hands of the Spaniards. Ten years later it became a city of the new Republic of Bolivia.

Argentine Ancient Coins: Enhene losing the mint of Potosi and the provinces of the High Peru, a remarkable shortage of currencies took place in all the Argentine North. The coins with the bust of the king disappeared from the market, leaving the old macuquinas, later falsified in great scale.
It should be noted that, having been minted for the last time in Potosi in 1773, these cut coins still circulated: they could only be eradicated in the second half of the 19th century. 

 


 


Argentine Ancient Coins

1815

Potosi (For Argentine).Rio de la Plata.     L Leandro Ozio

8 Reales


1828

 

1832

 

 

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columbia Store on Amazon

1834

 

1836

    Argentine Ancient Coins

                    


          1838 

Argentine Ancient Coins.   Federal Rosist Currency

Mint of La Rioja

Confederate Republic of Argentina. (Republica Argentina Confederada)

  Argentine Ancient Coins

8 Escudos

Famatina mountain background, shield with Flags and the legend Eternal Loor to the Restorer (Eterno Loor al Restaurador ) and cannons. Denomination 8 Shields such as the Spanish monetary system.

The Restaurador is Juan Manuel de Rosas, leader of the Confederate side in the Argentine Civil War.

  Argentine Ancient Coins

8 Reales

Famatina mountain background, shield with laurels and the legend Eternal Loor to the Restorer (Eterno Loor al Restaurador ) and cannons. Denomination 8 Shields such as the Spanish monetary system.


1840

Argentine Ancient Coins . 8 Reales  – Unitary Currency First Version – Argentine Civil War

 Argentine Ancient Coins

Famatine mountain background, shield with laurels and sentenceIN UNION AND FREEDOM (EN UNION Y LIBERTAD ) and cannons such as the first coin of 1813 Denomination 8 Shields ( Escudos) . It is called rebel weight, first version. When General Brizuela lost power in the province of La Rioja evicted from power by the Unitarians, the governor who replaced them (federal) issued these coins, until La Rioja was retaken in 1841 by the federal troops, which reissued the Federal currency. The Legend REPUBLICA ARGENTINA appears for the first time. Argentine Ancient Coins

1840 

Argentine Ancient Coins. 8 Escudos  Unitary Currency Second Version – Argentine Civil War

  Argentine Ancient Coins

The shield of the Argentine nation is surrounded by flags 8 Escudos

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The North Face Store on Amazon

1840

Copper Coin of the Province of Buenos Aires. Government of J.M. Rosas

Dos Reales

 

1840 Copper Coin of the Province of Buenos Aires. Government of J.M. Rosas

1840

Argentine Ancient Coins . 8 Reales  – Unitary Currency First Version – Argentine Civil War

 Argentine Ancient Coins

Famatine mountain background, shield with laurels and sentenceIN UNION AND FREEDOM (EN UNION Y LIBERTAD ) and cannons such as the first coin of 1813 Denomination 8 Shields ( Escudos) . It is called rebel weight, first version. When General Brizuela lost power in the province of La Rioja evicted from power by the Unitarians, the governor who replaced them (federal) issued these coins, until La Rioja was retaken in 1841 by the federal troops, which reissued the Federal currency. The Legend REPUBLICA ARGENTINA appears for the first time. Argentine Ancient Coins

1840 

Argentine Ancient Coins. 8 Escudos  Unitary Currency Second Version – Argentine Civil War

  Argentine Ancient Coins

The shield of the Argentine nation is surrounded by flags 8 Escudos


1843

Confederacion Argentina 2 Reales Gold

1840   Confederacion Argentina 2 Reales Gold
1840  Confederacion Argentina 2 Reales Gold

 

1840   Confederacion Argentina 2 Reales Gold
1840  Confederacion Argentina 2 Reales Gold

 

 

1852

Argentine Ancient Coins. 8 Reales Mint of Cordoba.

 Argentine Ancient Coins Argentine Ancient Coins

The mint of 8 reales of 1852 belongs to the provincial emission. Neither the word Argentina nor Republica appear on either side. Corresponds to a period of high institutional instability and national identity. It belongs to a coinage ordered by the caudillo in power at that moment, that as it was seen in the mint of the Rioja, modified the images to the pleasure of the ruler of the day. Denomination 8 Reales, following the Spanish tradition.

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