Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheelcranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Crane in the Port of Luneburg – Germany
The old crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.
The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.
The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load
Anecdotes of the treadwheelcrane
In 1840, the Treadwheel crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time.
As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.
With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons.
Ostricher – Germany
The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop’s privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.
We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.
The Oestricher Wheel Crane is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.
This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.
The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.
Trier – Germany
Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.
The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.
A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain.
It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name “Alte Krahnen” in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.
Andernach – Germany
The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.
The Andernacher Krahnenwas the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.
The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).
The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.
The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called “Kaiserbaum” or “support tree”. Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Germany
It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 “. And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler […] of all Babylon.”)
In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.
The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church’s hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.
As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.
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In the Argentine Patagonia almost at the end of the world, in a town of 300 inhabitants called Chalten, you can visit glaciers in places that have very little human presence. The walk lasts about 6 hours from the village and you have to take everything to camp, since there is no support there.
To move there you have to take a plane to Buenos Aires (about 9 hours), another plane from Buenos Aires to Calafate (three hours more to the south). And finally in a vehicle (about four hours more) until chalten. All an adventure and an authentic Glacier at The End of the World
View of Cerro Torre and Torre Glacier You can not see the birth of the Glacier because it is more than 30 km from this place. Hiking on the glacier is forbidden. There is no presence of park rangers and control authorities. It is a very aggressive and rugged place,
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The cranes of wheel ( or Treadwheel Cranes) were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist.
Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Beverley Minster is an English parish church located in Beverley – East Yorkshire. It is undoubtedly one of the largest parish churches in England, being larger than some English cathedrals. It is considered a masterpiece of Gothic art. Also called Minster because in ancient times it was the church of a monastery.
Construction work began in 1225 and probably lasted almost 200 years. The twin towers of the western façade inspired the design of the present Westminster Abbey – London.
The building was able to survive after the dissolution of the monasteries, between 1536 and 1540, decreed by King Henry VIII of England. The current building retains almost everything except the chapter house.
To conclude, we will say that the wheel crane is placed on the vault of the central tower, and was driven by two people. The visit to the tower where the medieval wheel crane is done is through guided tours on Saturdays at 11am.
There are other Treadwheel cranes in Europe. One of them is in the Cathedral of Strasbourg – France, Here I could see the note.
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Travel planning can be especially stressful for people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) or other health conditions that require oxygen therapy. The following steps can be helpful with the process:
Call your local oxygen supplier one to two weeks in advance to arrange for your oxygen supply while you are traveling. Your needs will vary according to your mode of transportation and length of stay at your destination.
If traveling by air, book far in advance because airlines allow only a limited number of people traveling with oxygen per flight.
Take antiseptic hand-washing packets or gel to help avoid picking up bacterial or viral infections. Also wash hands with soap and water frequently.
If you are traveling to an area of high altitude, plan ahead for an oxygen supply at your destination.
Ajaccio is not only the birthplace of Napoleon but also has its own attractions and with great charm. A historic center where you can walk through ancient streets where colorful houses abound.
A walls of an ancient citadel. An ideal place to see all the colors of a late Mediterranean sunset. City located in a bay surrounded by mountains, with a mild and pleasant climate all year round. Ajaccio offers a relaxed lifestyle.
What to see in Ajaccio
1-The birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte: is the house where the BuonaParte family lived (Bonaparte) and where Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769. It is decorated with furniture from that time and many family objects have been preserved (portraits , the genealogical tree, the mortuary mask of the Emperor of France).
2-The Fesch Museum: this museum exhibits the collection of paintings collected by Cardinal Joseph Fesch, uncle of Napoleon. It is one of the most important Italian paintings of the fourteenth to nineteenth centuries, with about 15,000 works. It includes paintings by Sandro Botticelli, Titian and other artists of the Italian Renaissance.
3-The History Museum of Corsica: It is located in the center of the city. The museum presents unique documents, weapons and dresses, ancient coins, plans. Everything is related to the history of Corsica. It is dedicated to the main figures of Corsa History such as Sampiero Corso, Pasquale Paoli and Napoleón Bonaparte.
Casamaccioli is located in the region of Niolu, a hill in the interior of Corsica, to the north and also surrounded by mountains. Just 20 miles separate from Corte, the old capital of the island.
It is one of the highest and most isolated villages on the island. However, on a special date that is September 8, there is a crowd of people
The date of the birth of the Virgin Mary attracts thousands of people to this mountain town, because here the most important religious festival of Corsica is celebrated: A Santa di u Niolu
When arriving at Casamaccioli, in the square in front of the church painted yellow, the procession starts. The bishop goes to the front followed by the wooden madonna and behind several religious brotherhoods
The procession passes next to several stalls with Corsican culinary specialties, such as Prisutu ham, as soft as lard. Also the lonzu which is a dried sausage outdoors, made from the meat of semi-wild pigs. It highlights calenzana, a milky goat cheese that has a spicy aroma and flavor. The corsa kitchen does not contain the brocciu, a soft fresh cheese made from goat or sheep milk. The farmers and merchants in Casamaccioli sell it in all its forms and variants imaginable
The macchia, is the eternally green Mediterranean scrub in Corsica, and covers more than half the surface of the island. Also spreads through the air the aroma of thyme, rosemary, basil and other natural essences.
Napoleon Bonaparte, the emperor of France and the most famous Corsican, said that with his eyes blindfolded he could recognize every corner of the island only for its aromas and fragrances.
The migliacci are tortillas baked with fresh brocciu cheese and are a real delicacy. Pietra is a beer made locally. Sip, a little sweet, made of chestnuts . Something different from the bitter flavors that we are used to in beers.
Chestnut is the star product of the island. The islanders use chestnut flour as a basis for numerous dishes and products. For some years it has even been used to make and ferment whiskey.
When to Travel Corsica
Corsica has a Mediterranean climate with dry and very hot summers on the coast. In winter, the climate on the coast is temperate and humid. But in the mountains of the interior of the island it is usual to be covered with snow until well into spring. The best time to visit the island is between the months of May and September
How to get Travel to Corsica the Island of Napoleon
By plane to Bastia and rent a car there. You can also reach Bastia by ferry from Nice. Information about the ferry itinerary: www.corsica-ferries.de. accommodation
On the island there are many good hotels, resorts and holiday homes. You can consult them here
Saint Moritz – Switzerland: Meadows, Snow and Mountains
Saint Moritz (Sank Moritz) , located in the south-east of Switzerland, in the region known as Upper Engadine ,. The site is known worldwide for the celebration here of two winter games: 1928 and 1948.
Sankt Moritz (St. Moritz) was mentioned for the first time in the 12th century. It was a village that was formed around springs, which according to beliefs of the time had healing powers. The village is named after Saint Maurice, who according to legend was a martyred Christian in Roman Switzerland.
History of Saint Moritz
Caspar Badrutt, born in Samedan in 1819, emigrated as a child to Saint Moritz with his family and in 1858 he founded a hotel, antecedent of the current Hotel Kulm. In 1864 according to oral legends, he invited a group of Englishmen to his hotel with the condition that if they did not enjoy it, I would reimburse them for travel expenses. The visitors arrived and stayed more than six months.
A city with two dominant colors.White in winter and green in summer. Wet and slippery streets in winter, but with a lot of style and charm. . Impressive landscapes in summer with trails for trekking or excursions. We tell you how to enjoy the Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz
Sports: Summers & Winters
In summer the Saint Moritz lake is full of water and sports activities. The lake it freezes and is also the scene of recreational activities. In 1907 a horse race was run on the frozen lake. They also practice other sports on ice such as polo (on the frozen lake), cricket, hockey and cross-country skiing.
The lower part of the city concentrates the more than 5000 inhabitants of the city. We found the El Badrutt’s Palace, it is a hotel managed by five generations. The hotel opened its doors in 1896 and its creator, was one of the sons of Caspar Badrutt
Walking Saint Moritz
You can visit the town on foot in two hours. We start with Via Maistra, pedestrian in its first part. In this street there is a leaning tower that dates from 1570, although it is only 12 feet high and a slope of about four degrees. It was part of the old church of San Mauricio, destroyed in 1890. In the surroundings there are still some tombs.
Nearby is the monument to the “crest corridor”, the local sport. It is practiced on a natural snow track that has its starting point where this bronze image is located. The event is held annually every winter since 1885.
The track is built new, every January, is almost one mile long and a slope between 1 and almost 10 degrees and a difference between origin and arrival of 2 yards
Walking along the Via del Bagn you reach the Engadiner Museum, which allows you to get to know the life of the city in different periods. It is approximately one hour of travel. Price 20 dollars (13 Swiss Francs) and children under 16 years are free. Tuesday closed.
Funicular: Meadows, Snow and Mountains in Saint Moritz
On the way to the mountain you can use the funicular railway linking Saint Moritz with the Corviglia ski center. The price is about US $ 60 per person per day. The snow pits of Corviglia are considered one of the most important in Europe. It has options for all levels including children. The Alpina Hütte center, close to the funicular station, closes from April to June.
On the way back, at the Chantarella transfer station, there is one last attraction. Half a mile away from the station is Heidi’s cabin. Here the film of this child character was filmed. Access is free and the walk to the place does not take more than 30 minutes.
Bernina Express: Panoranic Railway
Another way to enjoy the meadows, snow and mountains in Saint Moritz: Next to the lake Saint Moritz is the railway station. There is the terminal of two panoramic trains. Glacier Express and Bernina Express. Today we are going to talk about the latter because it is what we take to get to sank motitz. We did it from the station of Tirano (Italy).
After a journey of more than two hours through amazing landscapes, precipices, tunnels, bridges, lakes and snow, you will reach Saint Moritz. It is advisable to do it as much as if you are passing through or hiking. here the pictures of the train trip.
How to get there and where to stay
To Get: from anywhere in the world:
Naples or Rome Airport (Italy). Train or Fly to Milan (Italy). From Milan Train to the Main Station of Tirano (Italy) The Bernina Express train departs from that station
Zurich Airport (Switzerland). From there train to Chur 1h 15 min of trip and from there to St. Moritz 2h of trip plus the time of connection between trains
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Las Vegas: Traveling Europe Without Leaving the United States. That’s possible?. Sure, of course. You just have to go to Las Vegas, in the Mojave desert in Nevada. Las Vegas is a tourist city famous for its exciting activity 24 hours a day. Never Close. Never sleeps. Open casinos and shows at all times.
It is a city devoted to entertainment and tourism. Currently, 650,000 people live in Las Vegas (2016) and receive almost 40 million visitors a year.
In 1931, with the legalization of the game, Las Vegas begins its rise as a city. In 1941, the very luxurious hotels of the world began to be built, which also incorporated gaming casinos. The first of these was the Flamingo, built under the supervision of gangster Bugsy Siegel. In the decade of the 60s, the city has another impulse due to the overthrow of Batista in Cuba by the revolutionary Castro. . The American businessmen abandoned their business in Havana and moved to Las Vegas. Frank Sinatra and other artists settled in Las Vegas and offered shows on a continuous basis.
Particularities :Las Vegas has the highest suicide rate in the United States, although most are committed by visitors. It also has the largest divorce rate in the entire country. Unlike other cities in the United States, gambling and betting are legal in Las Vegas, bars can open and serve alcohol 24 hours a day
It is a city with many facilities to create businesses, marriage or divorce. And there are many weddings on the day, more than 300. And in a few minutes.
The casinos of Las vegas are so prepared that a hospital to take care of infarction in their gaming halls
The average daily hours of play of a visitor is four hours a day
Las Vegas is the brightest point on Earth seen from space
More than 145,000 rooms are available to stay.
All entertainment activity can be found on the main avenue, called the strip. It is a boulevard where many luxury hotels are. Among them there are three that are thematic referring to cities and European history. Are these:
The theme of the hotel is the Roman Empire. It is very well located in the center of the Strip, and exudes luxury and opulence even in the smallest details.It has more than 4000 rooms distributed in six towers.It also has 6 swimming pools, jacuzzis and a theater with capacity for 3,000 people. It has a replica of the Fontana di Trevi, the true fountain is in the city of Rome
Staying at the Hotel Venetian is a unique experience.If you have already been to Venice you will be surprised to find places like the Grand Canal, the Rialto Bridge, the Campanile and the San Marcos Square. Gondola rides are offered on the canal while the gondolier sings a serenade, as if he were in Venice
In the areas of the Grand Canal and San Marcos are most of the shops and restaurants of the hotel.This part of the hotel has an artificial roof that simulates being on a sunny day at noon for 24 hours a day
The Paris Hotel is one of the best-themed hotels in Las Vegas. On the outside you can see the most iconic monuments of Paris. The Eiffel Tower and the Arc de Triomphe. there is a replica of the Plaza de la Concorde and the facade is inspired by the Louvre Museum and the Opera Garnier.
To walk through the interior of the hotel is to stroll with the same romantic atmosphere as in the streets of Paris. Bakeries, restaurants, patisseries and shops. The hotel has 2,916 rooms, a swimming pool (located at the foot of the Eiffel Tower) and two Jacuzzis. During the winter the pool is heated. Also of course it has a Casino
There is a replica of the Eiffel Tower, which measures 540 feet (165 m) in height and, in addition to being the icon of the hotel also offers two attractions.
Lookout: As in the original Paris.
Panoramic Restaurant: Located on the 11th floor of the tower is one of the best restaurants in Las Vegas. From there you can also enjoy the Bellagio fountains.
The Bellagio is a luxury hotel and casino Inspired by resorts in the town of Bellaggio, Lake Como in Italy.Bellagio is an elegant hotel and has an artificial lake of about 8 acres (3.2 km²), in which it contains a few springs of dancing waters, synchronized with music. Bellagio is the place where the “O” production of Cirque du Soleil is presented permanently.
He is one of the most luxurious hotel complexes in the city.Its construction was completed in 2005 and cost 2,700 million dollars.It offers 2,716 rooms that have an average of 640 square feet (59 m²) spread over the 50 floors that make up the building.It also has special rooms called the villas that are another type of rooms with 7,000 square feet (650 m²) It has for entertainment
A 111,000-square-foot (10,200 m²) casino
Four Nightclubs: Tryst, XS, Surrender and Encore Beach Club
Wynn Esplanade Shoppes: more than 20 stores and boutiques.Louis Vuitton, Chanel, Dior, Cartier.Jo Malone among others
Chapel for Weddings!!
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One of the attractions of Las Vegas are the Weddings. Every year more than 120,000 weddings are celebrated in Las Vegas, being the second place in the world with more marriages.
Traditional weddings are performed, as well as themed or eccentric weddings. I could marry you Elvis Presley, marry in a helicopter or sail through Lake Mead. Or perhaps a mafia wedding, where the minister is the godfather
Where to marry?
In addition to the hundreds of chapels around the city, all the large hotels have several chapels to celebrate weddings. Most of the chapels offer traditional weddings (religious or civil) and themes.
How much does it cost to get married in Las Vegas?
Although in Las Vegas it is possible to get married for less than $ 150, it is normal to pay around $ 300 for a traditional wedding, which includes the use of the chapel, the witness, the flowers, the photographer and the hotel pick-up in a limousine. . If you want a thematic wedding where you get married and sing Elvis or go by helicopter to get married in Valley of Fire, the cost is higher
It is necessary that both parties are over 18 years old. Minors require the presence of a parent or legal representative. The price of the marriage license is $ 55. The license office (Clark County Marriage Bureau) is located at 201 Clark Ave and opens from 8 in the morning to 12 at night.
Language:There are also ceremonies in languages other than English
Duration: The average duration of weddings in Las Vegas is half an hour. Those who wish may hire more time in the chapel.
Wedding dress: The most common is to rent it in Las Vegas.
Witnesses: If nobody accompanies you on the trip, the chapels themselves have their witnesses
Note: Some of the images were taken from Booking.com. Traveling-cook.com is a sales affiliate of Booking.com and amazon.com
Capri is an island located at the southern end of the Bay of Naples in Italy. It was already known in the Roman Empire for its beautiful landscapes. The Romans made this island a tourist destination and a place of summer residence. Today it is one of the main tourist places in the Naples area next to the island of Ischia and the city of Naples itself.
Blue Grotto ( Grotta Azzurra)
One of its best known natural sites is the Blue Grotto. It is a dark cavern where the sea shines through the entrance with an electric blue color. There are a variety of exclusive hotels and rest villas.
Rent a boat for a half-day with a private driver. He or she will take you to swim amongst all of the most amazing caves
Rent an excursion to go around the island. But the additional of entering the blue grotto that is unmissable (you have to pay extra)
Walking through the streets of capri is a unique experience. Spectacular landscapes at the end of each street
Visit Villa Krupp. Residence at the beginning of the 20th century of the owner of the famous armament factory. Hot is a park with unique views
Visit Materita Tower. Old medieval tower of Anacapri, was later converted into a residence. Built in 1378, by the monks of the Charterhouse of San Giacomo, to defend against Saracen attacks.
Villa Damecuta: Located in Anacapri, Damecuta is one of the severals imperial Roman villas, and little survives of it. Its plant has a gallery porticada towards the Gulf of Naples, topped by a semicircular viewpoint. During the Middle Ages a watchtower was built. In the nineteenth century also a defensive wall.
Ischia: The Island of Amazing Landscapes
The island of ischia was occupied and inhabited since before the Roman Empire. The Romans did not take care of this island, considering it unstable because of its continued earthquakes.
The Island suffered continuous invasions for more than 1500 years of all the neighboring towns until the crown of Aragon conquered and built a castle. Today it is a place of exclusive villas and hotels. It has many sandy beaches with amenities for tourists.
The Aragonese Castle
Recommend a visit to the Aragonese Castle. We recommend visiting the building and learning its history. Ischia & Capri: Islands to fall in love
Ischia & Capri: Islands to fall in love
How to Get
From Naples. get to the port of Naples. There are some boxes where different companies sell the round trip tickets (or one way) to Ischia, Capri, Salerno, Positano, and Sorrento. Consult the schedules of the last boat, since they vary according to the season of the year.
Carcassonne Celebrates UNESCO Anniversary With art
Carcassonne is a medieval city in the south of France and has two sites classified by UNESCO on the list of World Heritage: the medieval city, double unice fortress in Europe, and the Canal du Midi.
Carcassonne is an example (one of the few remaining) of a fortified medieval city with an great defensive system that surrounds the castle and its dependencies. It also has a Gothic cathedral, a Christian Cathedral Catara and many urban buildings and streets of medieval origin. They are preserved because the area was not affected by the three wars they had with the Germans. 1870, 1914 (WWI) and 1939 (WWII).
This year of 2018 was celebrated the 20th anniversary of the inscription of the city as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO: the Swiss artist Ticino Felice Varin was contracted to pine a work called “eccentric concentric circles”. They can be enjoyed until September 2018
Defensive Walls of Carcassonne
The walled city of Carcassonne is composed of two concentric walls that completely surround the city. Before the first wall there is also a very deep defensive pit. Within the City there is another walled castle with a pit as the last line of defense. This castle is called castle condal
How much does it cost to visit these walls?
The first and second walls are free. To visit El Castillo Condal you have to pay. although it is worth visiting.