Walking Paris in Three Days: Complete Guide

Walking Paris in Three Days


 Walking Paris in Three Days  : First Day

We propose this travel guide to visit Paris in three days where the most famous places were included and some recommendations do not waste a minute of time

Arrived to Visit Paris on train to the station of Paris Gare du Nord from London. We took a public transport ( Metro).Luckily the hotel was very close.

Before starting, I commented that there is an option for those who do not intend to walk: make a City Tour hop on-hop off, of which you can tour the main points of the city for one or two days. In Paris there are two very good companies: Big Bus and City Sigthseeing

They see in Paris in 3 days 

Arc de Triomphe & Grand Palais

Download The Complete Guide: Three Days in Paris  

We will start our route at the Arc de Triomphe (Charles de Gaulle-Etoile metro:  lines 1, 2 and 6). We advise climbing to have a panoramic view of Paris. Once up, you can see the large avenues that start from here dividing the center of Paris, the financial district of La Defense and the famous Eiffel Tower.

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Walking Paris in Three Days: Complete Guide
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Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century

Advertising and Travel: Vessels

At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, many shipping lines that transported mail and some passengers transformed their ships into luxury  Vessels . It was no longer just the flow of immigrants to America. It was a transportation business by sea. And luxury in many cases. This is a brief history of the passengers who crossed the Atlantic oceans on ships. And of the graphic advertisements of that time


Traveling on Sailboats

In 1818, the Black Ball Line shipping company offered the first regular passenger service from the United Kingdom to the United States with a fleet of sailing ships, offering comfort services to passengers. A few years later numerous companies followed their example offering their services around the world.

In 1840, the ship of the British shipping company Cunard Line, the RMS Britannia began its first regular passenger and cargo service performed by a steamship, sailing from Liverpool to Boston. But sailboats still maintained a dominant position in passenger traffic
In 1845, the SS Great Britain became the first propeller-driven iron-hulled ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

  .


Fighting for the Passengers

In the British market, the Cunard Line and the White Star Line maintain a fierce competition from the purchase of the latter company by Thomas Ismay in the late 1860s. The competition is focused on shortening the time between the United Kingdom and New York

In 1899, the White Star Line introduced a new type of boat with the name of RMS Oceanic. The construction of the RMS Oceanic marked a point of inflection from which the White Star stopped competing in speed to offer more comfort and luxury to its passengers.

Cunard Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century

The enlarging Market: Germany

In 1897, Germany appeared in the shipping market of the eltantico with the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse of Norddeutscher Lloyd. A few years later three more twin ships, belonging to the Kaiser class, were added. This ship was the first to own four. The ship would only have needed two for the operation of its boilers, but a larger number of chimneys gave passengers a greater sense of security and was used as a marketing argument

In 1900, the shipping company HAPAG launched the SS Deutschland, also equipped with four chimneys and built to develop high speed. but this increase in speed caused vibrations in the structure of the ship, so it lost market given the discomfort of traveling in those conditions

Normandie Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th CenturyCunard Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Centurywhite star line Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century


Larger and Faster Passenger  

In 1902, Cunard built two new ocean liners, the RMS Lusitania and the RMS Mauretania, designed to reach a cruising speed of close to 24 knots.

In 1911, the White Star Line launched the RMS Olympic the first of three vessels of 45,000 gross tons, (Olympic class). The other two vessels were to the RMS Titanic and the HMHS Britannic.

In 1912, the RMS Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, leaving a balance of more than 1,500 people dead. The HMHS Britannic sank November 21 while crossing the Kea channel (Aegean Sea), in the Greek archipelago by an explosion caused by a mine. In this shipwreck 29 people died.

And the war took the Vessels

Before starting WWI, the shipping line Hamburg America Line ordered the construction of three large giant ships, the SS Imperator, SS Vaterland and SS Bismarck, all with more than 51,500 gross tons. The Imperator was launched in 1912, and the Bismarck (later renamed the RMS Majestic) would be the largest ship in the world until 1935.

These ships were not in service with the Hamburg America Line before the First World War. After the war, they were handed over as war reparations after the German defeat, and awarded to the British and American shipping companies. The Vaterland was the SS Leviathan of the United States Lines; the Imperator became the RMS Berengaria and the Bismarck became the RMS Majestic. Respectively of the Cunard and the White Star Line

 


Passengers and Crews at War

The outbreak of the First World War interrupted the transatlantic commercial trips by the activity of German submarines. In 1915, the RMS Lusitania, in service as a civilian passenger ship, was attacked and torpedoed by a German U-boat. It was sunk in the coast of Ireland with a loss of life of 1,200 passengers and crew.

Large ocean liners, such as the RMS Mauretania and the RMS Olympic, were required for the transport of troops and hospital ships, while smaller ships became armed merchant cruisers. The HMHS Britannic, entered into service in the war as a hospital ship as soon as it was completed, a task he performed for a year before being sunk by a mine in the Aegean Sea.

 Titanic Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century


The Golden Years Returned

After the WWI ended, bigger and faster ships continued to be built. In 1929, the German ships SS Bremen and SS Europe exceeded the speed record set by the Mauretania twenty years earlier, with an average speed of almost 28 knots. The ships used new hydrodynamic designs at the bow and new steam turbines to reach these speeds .

In 1933, the Italian transatlantic SS Rex of 51,300 tons, with a crossing time of four days and thirteen hours, broke the record of the Atlantic crossing. In 1935, the French liner SS Normandie used a new and revolutionary helmet design and a powerful turbo-electric transmission to beat the record again.
Due to the crisis of 1929 the British government merged the Cunard Line and the White Star Line. The new company called Cunard White Star Line, built the RMS Queen Mary and the RMS Queen Elizabeth. Two of the most luxurious ships of that time

 

 

 

The Experience of Traveling in Imperial Airways

imperial airways Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Centuryimperial airways Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Centuryimperial airways Advertising & Travel at the Beginning of the 20th Century

 


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Welcome to Palace 2019

Visit to Little Known Palaces of Madrid

See Spanish Version

Welcome to Palace 2019: there is a new version of this activity. And the registration begins on March 11, 2019 at 5:00 pm Spanish Time. For us on the East Coast (New York City) will be 11.00AM and for those who are on the West Coast (San Francisco) will be 07.00 AM. They are visits to palaces that are NOT usually open to the public for different reasons.

Registration for free guided visits to Palacios de Madrid will be via web and in previous editions have been exhausted in just hours.

Welcome to Palace 2019 Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez
Welcome to Palace 2019

It is the sixth edition that is valid between April 2019 and January 2020 and the organization corresponds to the Directorate General of Cultural Heritage.

You can access more than 20 palaces that are cultural heritage and can not be visited if not through this program . There are also options apart from the guided tours such as live concerts and live performances.

All the information of the program Welcome to Palacio 2019-2020, places, places, activities dates etc. You can check here on the official website.

Reservations at: http://www.bienvenidosapalacio2019.es

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez-


Welcome to Palace 2019: Some Palaces 2018

  • Palace of the Duke of Fernán Núñez (Santa Isabel 44, Atocha), currently headquarters of the Foundation of Spanish Railways.
  • Godoy Palace
  • General Quarter of the Spanish Army: Buenavista Palace (Barquillo 49, Chueca)
  • Viana Palace (Duque de Rivas 1, Tirso de Molina), headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or the
  • Palace of the Marquis of Fontalba, headquarters of the Attorney General’s Office State.
  • list complete in the OFFICIAL WEBSITE
Front of Royal Palae Of Aranjuez -one day in madrid
Welcome to Palace 2019 – Front of Royal Palae Of Aranjuez

Madrid Useful information

How to get there: From USA to  Madrid ( Spain) 

New York ► Madrid – Barajas Airport

Air France Air France 8 h  Direct 
KLM KLM 8 h  Direct 
Delta Delta 8 h  Direct 
Tap Air Portugal Tap Air Portugal 7 h 55 m Direct 
United United 7 h 50 m Direct 
Lufthansa Lufthansa 7 h 50 m Direct 
Brussels Airlines Brussels Airlines 7 h 50 m Direct 

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Welcome to Palace 2019 - Alcazar of Toledo
Welcome to Palace 2019 – Alcazar of Toledo
Welcome to Palace 2019
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Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019

Visita a Palacios Poco Conocidos de Madrid

Ver Versión en Ingles

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 : hay una nueva version de esta actividad. Y comienza la inscripción el 11 de marzo de 2019 a las 17 hs Hora  Española. Para nosotros en la costa Este (New York City) serán las 11.00AM y para los que están en la costa Oeste (San Francisco)  serán las 07.00 AM. Son visitas a  palacios que NO están abiertos al público habitualmente por diferentes razones.

Las inscripciones para las visitas guiadas gratuitas a Palacios de Madrid serán por vía web y en las ediciones anteriores se han agotado en solo horas.

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez
Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 – 2020 —  Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez

Es la sexta edición  que tiene vigencia entre abril de 2019 a enero de 2020 y  la organización corresponde a la Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural.

Se pueden acceder a más de 20 palacios que son patrimonio cultural y no se podrán visitar si no es mediante este programa.  También hay opciones aparte de las visitas guiadas como ser conciertos y actuaciones de epoca en vivo.

Toda la información del programa  Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019-2020, lugares, sitios, actividades fechas etc.  se puede consultar aquí en la web oficial.

Reservas en : http://www.bienvenidosapalacio2019.es

Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez-
Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 – 2020 — Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez


Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019: Algunos Palacios 2018

  • Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez (Santa Isabel 44,  Atocha), actualmente sede de la Fundación de Ferrocarriles Españoles.
  • Palacio de Godoy
  • Cuartel General del Ejército de Tierra: Palacio de Buenavista (Barquillo 49, Chueca)
  • Palacio de Viana (Duque de Rivas 1, Tirso de Molina), sede del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores o el
  • Palacio del Marqués de Fontalba sede dela Fiscalía General del Estado.
  • lista completa en la WEB OFICIAL 
Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019 - 2020 -Madrid Palacio Real -
Madrid Palacio Real – se puede visitar todo el año

Palacios a Visitar en 2019

  • Palacio de Buenavista (Cuartel General del Ejército de Tierra),
  • Palacio de D. Javier González-Longoria (Sociedad General de Autores y Editores),
  • Palacio del duque de Fernán Núñez (Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles)
  • Palacio de los duques de Liria y Alba
  • Palacio del duque de Santoña (Cámara de Comercio, Industria de Madrid)
  • Palacio del marqués de Amboage (Residencia del Embajador de Italia)
  • Palacio del marqués de Villafranca (Real Academia de Ingeniería)
  • Palacio del infante don Luis de Borbón
  • Palacio de don Ignacio Bauer (Escuela Superior de Canto)
  • Palacio Laredo (Centro Internacional de Estudios Históricos Cisneros y Museo Cisneriano)
  • Palacio de Zurbano (Ministerio De Fomento).
  • Palacio de los marqueses de Fontalba (Fiscalía General de Estado)
  • Palacete del marqués de Rafal (Residencia del Embajador de Bélgica)
  • Casa-Palacio de don Manuel González-Longoria (Colegio Notarial de Madrid)
  • Palacio de Godoy, (Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales)
  • Palacio de la duquesa de Parcent (Ministerio de Justicia)
  • Palacete de Joaquín Sorolla (Museo Sorolla)
  • Palacio de Parque Florido (Museo Lázaro Galdiano)
  • Palacio del marqués de Villafranca (Real Academia de Ingeniería)
  • Palacio de los marqueses de Argüeso (Embajada de Argentina)
  • Palacio del marqués de Viana (Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación)
  • Palacete de don Guillermo de Osma (Instituto Valencia Don Juan)
  • El Palacio del marqués de Villamejor
  • Palacio de la condesa de Adanero
  • Castillo-Palacio de Aldovea
  • Palacio del marqués de Gaviria.

Madrid Informacion Util

Como viajar de USA a Madrid ( España) 

New York ► Madrid – Barajas Airport

Air France Air France 8 h  Direct 
KLM KLM 8 h  Direct 
Delta Delta 8 h  Direct 
Tap Air Portugal Tap Air Portugal 7 h 55 m Direct 
United United 7 h 50 m Direct 
Lufthansa Lufthansa 7 h 50 m Direct 
Brussels Airlines Brussels Airlines 7 h 50 m Direct 

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Bienvenidos a Palacio 2019
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Gadget Power Bank 2019 – 2020

Gadget Power Bank

This is a selection of the best gadget power banks to charge any electronic device during a trip. Smatphone, eReaders or any accessory that can be charged by USB port. There are available from 1,000mAH to 85,000mAH. 

To provide power to your travel devices, up to 89800 mah

9000 mAh

Waterproof Charger- with Emergency LED Flashlight for Outdoor Activities

travel gadget: Water/Shock/Dust Proof
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
89800 mAh

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Vovomay - Travel Gadget
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
5000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank - Travel Gadget
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
50000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Travel Gadget - Power Bank
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
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Tips (7) to choose a Power Bank 2019-2020

Price

We can find external batteries of great quality from US $ 20 to no more than 50-60 euros. Cheaper batteries usually have a capacity of 10,000 mAh, enough to charge an iPhone up to 3 times. While the most powerful batteries have up to 85,000 mAh load.

Capacity

All the models in our list have a minimum capacity of 10,000 mAh to be able to charge the mobile phone at least 3 times. The most powerful batteries, + – 26,000 mAh allow to charge our mobile at least 8 times

Weight and size

Again, the weight and size are linked to the load capacity of the external battery. lighter batteries can weigh less than 10 oz (250 grams) with very small dimensions that make us not realize that we are carrying them. The most powerful external batteries usually have a weight of around 20 Oz (500 grams)

Security 

Verify that the models have the latest advances in security:

  • Protection against overheating
  • Overcurrent protection
  • Overvoltage protection
  • Protection against short circuits

Departure ports

Most of the best power bank have at least 2 output ports to be able to charge two devices at the same time. Some chargers have up to 5 output ports between USB, lightning, micro USB …

Ports of entry

The vast majority of chargers have a single input port to charge the external battery from the electric current. However, there are chargers that have 2 input ports reducing by half the charging time of the external battery if you have 2 cables.

Warranty time

All models have at least 1 year warranty by the manufacturer. The vast majority have 18 months and some of them have a lifetime guarantee!

30000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Solar Chargers 30,000mAh, Dualpow Portable Dual USB Solar Battery Charger

Solar Battery Charger External Battery Pack Phone Charger Power Bank with Flashlight for Smartphones Tablet Camera (Baby Blue)
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
26800 mAh

Zendure A8PD 26800mAh - 5-Port Quick Charge External Battery for iPhone X, Nintendo Switch, Samsung S9 and More

Travel gadget Power Bank
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
20000 mAh

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Zendure X6 USB-C Hub Portable Charger 20000mAh, 45W PD & QC 3.0 Power Bank with LED Display, 5 USB Ports

External Battery Pack for MacBook, iPhone, Galaxy, Smartwatches
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
30000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Solar Chargers 30,000mAh, Dualpow Portable Dual USB Solar Battery Charger

Dual USB output charging ports and Charge Fast: allow you to charge 2 digital devices simultaneously, also, it charges your phone very fast with the 2.1 usb port
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
20100 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

AC Outlet Power Bank RAVPower 20100mAh External Battery Pack 65W

Built in 2-Prong AC Plug Travel Charger Compatible for MacBook, Surface Pro, Dell XPS 13, iPhone Xs, Galaxy S9, Note 8
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
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Check if an external battery is suitable for air travel

The regulation specifies that the nominal capacity must be less than 100 Wh (Watt-Hour). That is to say: any power bank with a capacity lower than 27000 mAh (at 3.7V) is apt to be carried on an airplane as carry-on luggage.  – See the TSA regulations

How is the nominal capacity calculated in Wh?

Normally, the power bank specification sheet usually indicates its nominal capacity in Ah and Wh but, if you can not find it, you can calculate it for yourself:

As you already know, a power bank consists of a set of lithium-ion batteries of a certain capacity and a voltage between 3.6 Volts 3.8 Volts.

To know the nominal capacity in Watt-hour (Wh) you must multiply the total capacity of the power bank indicated in mAh by this voltage and divide by 1000:

Rated capacity (Wh) = (mAh x V) / 1000

For example: An external battery with a capacity of 20000 mAh and a voltage of 3.7V, the nominal capacity will be:

Rated capacity = (20000 mAh x 3.7V) / 1000 = 74 Wh <100 Wh


Gadget Power Bank 2019 - 2020
Gadget Power Bank 2019 – 2020

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Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Roman Empire: Routes & Network on Line Calculator

Land and Maritime

Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire.
You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator and Trade Network

 

Choose the place of departure and destination

And press calculate

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt

Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road londinium to coptos

Costs in denarii

In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62
Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29
Per passenger in a car: 2778.04

Cartago Nova to Rome

Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain)  to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network - Cartago nova to Rome

Same route as the previous one but in winter

Cartago nova to Rome in winter

Londinium to Rome in winter and summer

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator:  from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route

29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator - londinium to Rome in winter
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

 

A Little History of Roman Roads

The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before.
He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire.
The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.

The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative.  The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire

 

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Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
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◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Crane
Ancient Rome Crane

 

The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.

Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire

In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.

Pentaspastos

A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.

Ereaders


The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.

However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?

Ancient Rome Books

Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist

The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.

The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.

 

Marco Vitruvio Polión : Crane & Hoist Architect

(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )

Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.

Ancient Roman Crane engineers
Ancient Roman Crane engineers

In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.

As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.

Roman Cranes = Medieval Treadwheel Cranes

The Roman wheel cranes almost unchanged or modified will be used until the modern age and in some cases until the mid-nineteenth century as in the ports of Germany. Some are still today in their original places of construction. As an example we will put the Cathedral of Strasbourg (France) and the Church Beverley Minster (England)

Vitruvius the ten books on architecture on Amazon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related Post 

 

Ancient Cranes in Pinterest

A colaboration of : Besthoist.com

 

◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome
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The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis – Atenas – Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.


They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

Amphitheaters &amp; Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) –

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).
ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line


Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia – Saint Remy de Provence – (France)

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 

The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno – Nimes – (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

 

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France)

End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome


The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.
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AAA Travel 2019

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

There are two versions of AAA Travel: One free and one with membership. To find out if it is convenient or not to be a AAA Travel member, first see the prices. Then compare prices.

All membership plans include the AAA Travel roadside assistance benefit. this gives rights to free towing, replacement of spare tires, depleted battery start and delivery of fuel for your vehicles.

The levels of benefits increase with the hiring of higher price plans. For example, a high plan has a free 100-mile trailer.

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Other Benefits

The benefits of the AAA not only cover roadside assistance but also have additional benefits

Renew the driver’s license and Avoid the DMV

Many of the AAA branches also have driver’s license renewal services. This saves time and money and avoids doing the process in the DMV

Passport photos with discount
Discounts for those who have basic membership. And also free for higher memberships. You can also obtain a passport application. The AAA does not process passports.


International Driver’s License

You can get an international driver’s license (IDP) at any AAA location. You can also send a request by mail. An IDP is an identification document for the driver abroad. It is legal in more than 150 countries and is printed in several languages.
Requirements: valid EE license. UU, two passport size photos on white background and pay the corresponding fee

Rent-a-Car Plans

Offers coupons with discounts through Hertz. It has its own car search engine for rent

Travel insurance

The AAA has several types of travel insurance available, depending on the region of destination. They also offer according to the region insurance for cancellation or interruption of trips

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Other discounts

Discounts on tickets to theme parks such as Walt Disney World, Universal studios and special holiday packages in some regions and also on cruises. Also in trips to Europe you can get benefits in the purchase of train tickets (Rail Europe).

Travel planning

The AAA website also includes reservations for hotels, flights, vacation planning, car rentals. If you contact the AAA branches, they will assist you in booking services for members and also in planning group trips.

Road trips and planning

The traditional benefits of AAA on the road include towing, assistance with flat tires, vehicle lockout service, fuel delivery and more, but there are other AAA travel benefits when it comes to hitting the road.

AAA Travel Benefits 2019

Hotels and accommodations with discounts

Using the search engine of AAA and also points are recognized in loyalty programs. The discount hotels are among others: Best Western, Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott and MGM Resorts

Is the AAA Travel membership profitable?

Only If you need a full-service vacation planner and also travel discounts. An agency like AAA Travel can save you time, money and effort. But you should compare if the membership fee is lower than the money savings in the first place. And if apart it saves time and effort, which are also money.

Prices Membership AAA Travel 2019

Prices Membership AAA Travel.

Images are from the web AAA Travel.com

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Florida Renaissance Festival 2019

Florida Renaissance Festival in 2019

The Renaissance :  was a fascinating period in history when Europe made the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. The transformation was marked by art, clothing and cuisine.

This season is recreated every year at Quiet Waters Park in Deerfield Beach – Florida USA. The Florida Renaissance Festival 2019 is nothing less than the 27th anniversary of this event.

Florida Renaissance Festival in 2019
Florida Renaissance Festival in 2019

Days and Dates. Hours – Prices

Saturdays and Sundays, February 9-10, 16-17 and 23-24, and March 2-3, 9-10, 16-17, and 23-24, 2019. Monday is added as school day, February 11. The school day is open only to schools that have previously registered. Each weekend has a specific theme.


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Florida Renaissance Festival 2019
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8 beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

A beautiful and unknown Ireland Places

Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering. See image gallery

Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering.
If Ireland is part of your next trip to Europe, you can not miss any of these places.

Skellig Islands

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Located in the Atlantic, 13 kilometers southwest of Valentia Island, in the County of Kerry, Skellig Michael was chosen by J.J Abrams (Director of Star Wars: The Force Awakens) for the course of the new story. Well-known within the archaeological world, on the edge of some amazing cliffs that the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw described as “part of our world of dreams”, stands one of the best preserved Christian archaeological sites in the world, which were named as Patrimony World of Humanity by Unesco, in 1996.

The huts that serve as a dwelling for the veteran Jedi in fiction are actually a recreation of the stone houses where the monks lived and prayed more than 14 centuries ago. Filming in the authentic ones was limited. The island, one of the two that form the archipelago (the other is Little Skellig) became a refuge in the past for those whose beliefs and rights were being repressed by the Criminal Laws, imposed during the British rule of Ireland and which marginalized the native Catholic population. The best of beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Derryvegal Lake

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

This magical water mirror is located in the Beara peninsula, it is a perfect place to relax and enjoy the wildlife, while the misty peaks of the mountains and the deep forest surrounding the lake are appreciated. Its scenic beauty is an undeniable attraction for lovers of photography.

Glen of Glenariff

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

It is one of the nine Glens of Antrim. The Glens are valleys that look out to sea and that stand out for their natural beauty. The Glenariff is known as the “Queen of the Glens”. With just taking a look at the photo, one immediately understands why. Nearby is the Glenariff Forest Park, a leafy oasis full of waterfalls and riverside walks. It is a beautiful and unknown Ireland landscape 

Slieve League

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Other of beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes is cliffs of Slieve League, in County Donegal. Is one of those places where nature leaves one speechless. The imposing sea stretched on the horizon, the sea breeze blowing around and the waves crashing against the rocks, a combination of elements that make this place an almost obligatory stop for tourists. If you want to portray this landscape, it is best to head to the highest point of the cliffs, where there is an impressive drop of 609 meters.

Hill of Uisneach

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

It is said that this area is the old center of Ireland, marked by the famous Aill na Míreann (the Stone of the Divisions). It is also considered the resting place of Lugh, god of the sun. Here you can also see the beautiful wooden sculpture of the sculptor Richie Clarke, which represents this legendary deity on the shores of Lough Lugh Lake, where it is said that he found his end as mortal. This hill not only offers a beautiful landscape, but also has a lot of folklore and legends to discover.

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Clough Oughter Castle

The fortress, home of the O’Reilly clan, was built in the 12th century on a crannóg (artificial island) in the middle of a lake, in the county of Cavan. These ancient stones enclose secrets of confronting families, intrepid battles and ancient history. Guided boat tours of the lake and castle are available, which is part of the Marble Arch Caves Global Geopark, located next to the Killykeen Forest Park.

Flagstaff lookout

Flagstaff lookout- beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Near the city of Newry, the Flagstaff viewpoint is a place to have a good time with the camera in hand because it offers spectacular views of Carlingford Lough, the Mournes and the Cooley Mountains.

Glencar Lake

beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes
beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

This lake is a true oasis that gives an unforgettable moment of tranquility surrounded by a striking natural setting, like steep cliffs on its banks and waterfalls that form in the vicinity, the most famous was immortalized by the words of the great WB Yeats, in his mystic poem The Stolen Child. it is a one of the beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes

Sources

 Ireland.com

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8 beautiful and unknown Ireland landscapes
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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

1.45 Billion People Travel the World in 2019

By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France, Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.

Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe (both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%). 

madrid Paris People will Travel the World in 2019

Travelers on the Rise Every Year

The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”

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How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?
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Nepal Visa & Information for Travelers

VISA INFORMATION

Visa can be obtained on arrival at the Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, at border entry points in Kakadvitta, Birgunj, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Gaddachowki on Nepal-India border and Kodari on Nepal-China border. Visa can also be obtained at the nearest Nepal Embassy or Diplomatic Mission. Visa can also be obtained (renewal purposes) at Department of Immigration, Kalikasthan, Kathmandu.A valid passport and one passport -size photo with a light background is required. Immigration Department has not specified the size of the passport-size photo. 


Visa can be obtained


only through payment of cash in the following currency:Euro, Swiss Franc, Pound Sterling, US Dollar, Australian Dollar, Canadian Dollar, Hong Kong Dollar, Singapore Dollar and Japanese Yen.Credit card, Indian currency and Nepali currency are not accepted as payment of visa fee.
 
Nepal: Travel Gadgets buy on amazon.com
 

Tourist Visa

 
Visa FacilityDurationFee
Multiple entry15 daysUS$ 25 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry30 daysUS$ 40 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry90 daysUS$ 100 or equivalent convertible currency

Free Visa

 
For first visit in one visa year (January to December) , Free visa for 30 days is available only for nationals of South Asian countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. However, visa can be extended from the Immigration Department on payment of visa fee as specified above. Indian nationals do not require visa to enter into Nepal.
 
Nepal Visa
 


For Indian National

 
Indian nationals do not require visa to enter Nepal. As per the Nepalese Immigration, Indian Nationals Traveling to Nepal must posses any One of the following documents. 1. Passport 2. Driving License with photo 3. Photo Identity card issued by a Government Agency 4. Ration Card with Photo 5. Election Commission Card with Photo 6. Identity Card issued by Embassy of India in Kathmandu 7. Identity Card with Photo issued by Sub- Divisional Magistrate or any other officials above his rankd.
 

Other Information

 
Nationals from Nigeria, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Cameroon, Somalia, Liberia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Palestine and Afghanistan will need to obtain visa from Nepal Embassies or Diplomatic Missions in their respective countries, as they do not get visa on arrival at the immigration entry points of Nepal.
 
 

Visa Extension Tourists

can stay for a maximum of 150 days in a visa year (Jan 1 to Dec 31).
 
For further information, please contact: 
Department of Immigration 
Kalikasthan, Kathmandu 
Tel: 00977-1- 4429660 / 4438862 / 4438868/ 4433934 
E-mail: mail@immi.gov.np 
Web site: www.immi.gov.np
 
 

TRANSPORTATION

There are many buses, minibuses and micro buses available at Ratnapark (Old Bus Park) which depart to different destinations in the valley. Three wheelers run by battery are also available for Kathmandu commuters.

Metered Taxi:

Consult Kathmandu valley map to find out the direction of your destination. Hail a taxi, which is easily recognized by its taxi sign on top and black license plate. As a rough guide, a taxi will charge Rs. 30 per kilometer. No tip is expected. Private taxis may charge slightly higher. Night taxi service can also be arranged and operated by major hotels. Fare is slightly higher than metered taxi. One can rent a private car through a travel agent or a car rental company.

Hired Mountain Bike/ Ordinary Bicycle:

Mountain bikes and ordinary bicycles are cheap and the best form of transportation for economy tourists. One can hire them at Thamel, Rani Pokhari and Jhochhen, all in Kathmandu.

Long Distance Bus Service:

Long distance day or night bus services are available from Kathmandu to all cities of Nepal. New Bus Park at Gongabu at Ring Road near Balaju, Kathmandu, from where buses depart to different destinations. Six-seater Sumo Tata van, 12-seater van and air-conditioned mini buses are also available for long distance travel.

Domestic Air Service:

Nepal Airlines has an extensive network of air services to major parts of the country. Besides Nepal Airlines, other domestic airlines (there are more than 18 in operation) provide regular and chartered services to popular domestic destinations.

Nepal Visa & Information for Travelers
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Americans on vacation. Where are they going?

Americans on Vacation

Preferred Destinations

The preferred destinations of Americans outside the United States are reduced to five countries. To Mexico especially in the part of the Caribbean, Tulum, Playacar and Cancun. The most chosen European destinations are UK by history and culture. I have it that France and Italy. 

In France the most common destinations are Paris and the Loire Valley. to a lesser extent, the city of Església and the south of France, such as Carcassone. In Italy of course Rome, also Naples, Capri, Pompeii, Sicily, Milan and Cinque terre. By far after Rome the most visited is Venice

 Americans on vacation. Where are they going?
Americans on vacation. Where are they going?

 

The cost of Vacation

The main expenses of holidays: food, trips, gifts, duty free, transfers and transport, Christmas decorations, clothes, sports and accessories. The New Year is an opportunity to enjoy a vacation in: Las Vegas, New York, Colorado or Florida.

  • 37% of Americans pay nothing, especially when they are on vacation. Surprisingly,
  • 63% of Americans take payday loans for quick cash,.
  • During the holiday season, it is wise to control expenses, but also to use payday loans in a useful way

 

 Americans on vacation. Where are they going?

What is spent in the new year?

  • Food
  • Alcohol
  • Trips
  • Gifts
  • Duty Free
  • Travel & Transport
  • Holiday Memorabilia
  • Clothes
  • Sports
  • Accessories – Gadgets & Cheap Designer Goods

All this can be purchased at Amazon.com

 Americans on vacation. Where are they going?
Buy on Amazon.com

Enjoy your holidays

 Americans on vacation. Where are they going?

 

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Americans on vacation. Where are they going?
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