History of Medieval Tourism: The fall of the Roman Empire plunged the European continent into a period of great confusion and disorder. For a time there was also an almost permanent state of war between the barbarian chiefs, who had invaded the ancient Roman empire. This contributed to the weakening of all forms of centralized government power.
There was a distribution of the population very different from the previous one.
Until the fall of the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean Sea concentrated the life of the ancient world.
The seaway facilitated commerce and travel in general. Tourism also in Roman times
Civilization extended to northern Europe and the British Islands
The transition from ancient to medieval culture during the High Middle Ages, took place gradually and almost imperceptibly. Roman economy, social organization and art inevitably declined. One of its consequences was the transfer of the population to rural areas.
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism
This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.
These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.
Ancient Age Tourism: Greece
In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.
Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey.
Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms
It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.
Acropolis & Pyramids
Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.
The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.
In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.
They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.
In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.
Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.
Tourism in the Roman Empire
During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.
A Bit of Roman History
During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae. It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.
All Roads Lead to Rome
These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Only for Military Use
In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.
Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.
Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany) to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.
ORBIS – University of Stanford Raod & Network Calculator on Line
The Roman Empire Roads
There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy) and Cartago Nova ( Spain).
ORBIS – University of Stanford Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Stones on The Roads
Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies
SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS –SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS– SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents
Tourism: Only the Upper Class
The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea.
The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)
The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.
They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.
The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)
The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.
The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.
The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.
Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens.
On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day
Amphitheaters for all
The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.
They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France). That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.
My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?
During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself
The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) , where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.
Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).
End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
There are two versions of AAA Travel: One free and one with membership. To find out if it is convenient or not to be a AAA Travel member, first see the prices. Then compare prices.
All membership plans include the AAA Travel roadside assistance benefit. this gives rights to free towing, replacement of spare tires, depleted battery start and delivery of fuel for your vehicles.
The levels of benefits increase with the hiring of higher price plans. For example, a high plan has a free 100-mile trailer.
The benefits of the AAA not only cover roadside assistance but also have additional benefits
Renew the driver’s license and Avoid the DMV
Many of the AAA branches also have driver’s license renewal services. This saves time and money and avoids doing the process in the DMV
Passport photos with discount Discounts for those who have basic membership. And also free for higher memberships. You can also obtain a passport application. The AAA does not process passports.
International Driver’s License
You can get an international driver’s license (IDP) at any AAA location. You can also send a request by mail. An IDP is an identification document for the driver abroad. It is legal in more than 150 countries and is printed in several languages. Requirements: valid EE license. UU, two passport size photos on white background and pay the corresponding fee
Offers coupons with discounts through Hertz. It has its own car search engine for rent
The AAA has several types of travel insurance available, depending on the region of destination. They also offer according to the region insurance for cancellation or interruption of trips
Discounts on tickets to theme parks such as Walt Disney World, Universal studios and special holiday packages in some regions and also on cruises. Also in trips to Europe you can get benefits in the purchase of train tickets (Rail Europe).
The AAA website also includes reservations for hotels, flights, vacation planning, car rentals. If you contact the AAA branches, they will assist you in booking services for members and also in planning group trips.
Road trips and planning
The traditional benefits of AAA on the road include towing, assistance with flat tires, vehicle lockout service, fuel delivery and more, but there are other AAA travel benefits when it comes to hitting the road.
Hotels and accommodations with discounts
Using the search engine of AAA and also points are recognized in loyalty programs. The discount hotels are among others: Best Western, Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott and MGM Resorts
Is the AAA Travel membership profitable?
Only If you need a full-service vacation planner and also travel discounts. An agency like AAA Travel can save you time, money and effort. But you should compare if the membership fee is lower than the money savings in the first place. And if apart it saves time and effort, which are also money.
Global Discounts Program
Many mobility clubs around the world are active in AAA’s global discounts program. This means that they have partnerships throughout their countries where you can obtain discounts (attractions, museums, hotels, retail locations, and some restaurants). Follow this link to search for discounts when traveling to European countries. Please note that you will be required to present a valid AAA membership in order to be eligible to receive services from mobility clubs in other countries.
Check with your local AAA branch office about upgrading to a Premier membership to explore enhanced benefits when traveling overseas.
On the second day we took a boat Vaporetto in San Marcos square. Previously we acquired a full day ticket that includes all the routes throughout the day. Our destination is the islands of Murano and Burano
Do you want to travel to France by car but have no idea what to do first?
What is necessary to travel around France and enjoy it, without having a nervous breakdown?
Do you go to another country in Europe and have to cross France by road?
Will you need to have an car accident lawyer on standby in case you’re involved in an accident?
Okay. The first thing that is needed is a lot of money. If you have it, stop reading and book a luxury hotel here. This post is not for you.
Now, if you have a more limited budget. This is the right place
Here we go
Know what are the rules of circulation in France
If you have ever driven in any foreign country or if it is the first time you do it, you should know that France is a country where you travel in a similar way as in the United States of America. The rules that you must respect are very similar
The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.
Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire
In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.
A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.
The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.
However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?
Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist
The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.
The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.
Marco Vitruvio Polión : Roman Crane & Hoist Architect
(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )
Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.
In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.
As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.
I’m going to tell you my lovely days in Lisbon, which was the capital of an empire. All lisboa remembers his glorious padado. Like when sailors came out to discover and conquer lands on the other side of the world.
You see old faded tiles on their facades. Peeling walls and stone streets lined with old trams. No great luxuries or European stores are sought in this city, although they do. What is sought and found is a melancholic beauty, art, imperfection and the charm of the people.
Portugal is fashionable.
Last year it was awarded for the second time as Europe’s Best Destination in the World Travel Awards (WTA) They are prizes of the world tourism industry. And Lisbon turned out to be the Best City in Europe and the Best Cruise Port.
Founded by Tsar Peter the Great in 1703 on a marsh that was filled. It used hundreds of thousands of workers who built the city and connected with bridges about 50 islands
St. Petersburg is part of the select group of cities that are connected and built on a network of canals. As in Venice, Amsterdam or Bruges, water is the medium of transport and communication.
In just a few meters, separated only by the Moika river and the Griboyedo canal, the old town has three beautiful temples. They are about: The Church of the Savior on the Spilled Blood, also known as the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ.
Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, neoclassical style resembles the temples of Ancient Greece. Its set of colonnades distinguishes it from the rest of the buildings on Nevsky Avenue.
The inhabitants of Paris (France) claim more space in the streets and to achieve it. It will seek to prohibit the entry of tourist buses into the city center.
Emmanuel Gregoire, Deputy Mayor of Paris, informed that it is necessary to attend to a complaint from the inhabitants of Paris. It is about securing more space of circulation in the streets of the City.
The way to achieve this is to prohibit the entry of tourist buses that circulate in the center of the city of Paris. We are talking about all the companies that have tourist buses.
Welcome to Palace 2019: there is a new version of this activity. And the registration begins on March 11, 2019 at 5:00 pm Spanish Time. For us on the East Coast (New York City) will be 11.00AM and for those who are on the West Coast (San Francisco) will be 07.00 AM. They are visits to palaces that are NOT usually open to the public for different reasons.
Registration for free guided visits to Palacios de Madrid will be via web and in previous editions have been exhausted in just hours.
It is the sixth edition that is valid between April 2019 and January 2020 and the organization corresponds to the Directorate General of Cultural Heritage.
You can access more than 20 palaces that are cultural heritage and can not be visited if not through this program . There are also options apart from the guided tours such as live concerts and live performances.
All the information of the program Welcome to Palacio 2019-2020, places, places, activities dates etc. You can check here on the official website.
Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire. You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes
Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Costs in denarii
In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62 Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29 Per passenger in a car: 2778.04
Cartago Nova to Rome
Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain) to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Same route as the previous one but in winter
Londinium to Rome in winter and summer
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator: from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route
29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.
A Little History of Roman Roads
The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before. He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire. The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.
The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative. The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire
Arde Lucus is a festival celebrated in Lugo – Spain. That is celebrated between the end of May and the month of June. Relive the life of the Roman Empire in the old Spanish city of Lugo. This service started in 2001 and fu to commemorate the founding of the city.
In the year 2017 it has been declared a National Tourist Interest Festival by the Spanish State and in its last two editions more than one million participants were reached, of which a third were foreigners
This festival that tries to evoke the ancient Roman city Lucus Augusti of the second century (now Lugo in Spanish territory), began to celebrate as we mentioned in 2001. It should be noted that the old (and magnificent) Roman defensive walls. Over the years, the number of visitors increased to 460,000 participants in 2009, leaving an income of around 10 million euros in the city.
This celebration is one of the two most important in Europe in terms of the evocation of the Roman Empire. The other is the French city of Nimes, with its spectacular Roman amphitheater, which we will talk about later.
The Renaissance : was a fascinating period in history when Europe made the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. The transformation was marked by art, clothing and cuisine.
This season is recreated every year at Quiet Waters Park in Deerfield Beach – Florida USA. The Florida Renaissance Festival 2019 is nothing less than the 27th anniversary of this event.
Days and Dates. Hours – Prices
Saturdays and Sundays, February 9-10, 16-17 and 23-24, and March 2-3, 9-10, 16-17, and 23-24, 2019. Monday is added as school day, February 11. The school day is open only to schools that have previously registered. Each weekend has a specific theme.
Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering. See image gallery
Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering. If Ireland is part of your next trip to Europe, you can not miss any of these places.
Located in the Atlantic, 13 kilometers southwest of Valentia Island, in the County of Kerry, Skellig Michael was chosen by J.J Abrams (Director of Star Wars: The Force Awakens) for the course of the new story. Well-known within the archaeological world, on the edge of some amazing cliffs that the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw described as “part of our world of dreams”, stands one of the best preserved Christian archaeological sites in the world, which were named as Patrimony World of Humanity by Unesco, in 1996.