American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines
A collaboration of Marty Martinez
The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.
From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.
1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God
As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route. Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Cathedral of Strasbourg
We visited the Cathedral of Strasbourg
The Cathedral of Strasbourg was the first cathedral of Germany (or Kingdom of Germania). Until the arrival of Louis XIV in 1681 and his minister of the war, the Marquess of Louvois that camped in the environs of Strasbourg and forced their submission to the French monarchy the 30 of September of 1681.
The Cathedral was delivered by the same Luis XIV The head of the Catholic bishopric of Strasbourg, Egon de Furstenberg. Absent from the city for almost 150 years, that way ended the period as an independent city.
History of Medieval Tourism: The fall of the Roman Empire plunged the European continent into a period of great confusion and disorder. For a time there was also an almost permanent state of war between the barbarian chiefs, who had invaded the ancient Roman empire. This contributed to the weakening of all forms of centralized government power.
There was a distribution of the population very different from the previous one.
Until the fall of the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean Sea concentrated the life of the ancient world.
The seaway facilitated commerce and travel in general. Tourism also in Roman times
Civilization extended to northern Europe and the British Islands
The transition from ancient to medieval culture during the High Middle Ages, took place gradually and almost imperceptibly. Roman economy, social organization and art inevitably declined. One of its consequences was the transfer of the population to rural areas.
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism
This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.
These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.
Ancient Age Tourism: Greece
In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.
Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey.
Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms
It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.
Acropolis & Pyramids
Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.
The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.
In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.
They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.
In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.
Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.
Tourism in the Roman Empire
During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.
A Bit of Roman History
During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae. It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.
All Roads Lead to Rome
These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Only for Military Use
In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.
Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.
Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany) to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.
ORBIS – University of Stanford Raod & Network Calculator on Line
The Roman Empire Roads
There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy) and Cartago Nova ( Spain).
ORBIS – University of Stanford Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Stones on The Roads
Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies
SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS –SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS– SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents
Tourism: Only the Upper Class
The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea.
The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)
The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.
They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.
The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)
The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.
The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.
The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.
Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens.
On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day
Amphitheaters for all
The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.
They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France). That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.
My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?
During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself
The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) , where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.
Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).
End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
There are two versions of AAA Travel: One free and one with membership. To find out if it is convenient or not to be a AAA Travel member, first see the prices. Then compare prices.
All membership plans include the AAA Travel roadside assistance benefit. this gives rights to free towing, replacement of spare tires, depleted battery start and delivery of fuel for your vehicles.
The levels of benefits increase with the hiring of higher price plans. For example, a high plan has a free 100-mile trailer.
The benefits of the AAA not only cover roadside assistance but also have additional benefits
Renew the driver’s license and Avoid the DMV
Many of the AAA branches also have driver’s license renewal services. This saves time and money and avoids doing the process in the DMV
Passport photos with discount Discounts for those who have basic membership. And also free for higher memberships. You can also obtain a passport application. The AAA does not process passports.
International Driver’s License
You can get an international driver’s license (IDP) at any AAA location. You can also send a request by mail. An IDP is an identification document for the driver abroad. It is legal in more than 150 countries and is printed in several languages. Requirements: valid EE license. UU, two passport size photos on white background and pay the corresponding fee
Offers coupons with discounts through Hertz. It has its own car search engine for rent
The AAA has several types of travel insurance available, depending on the region of destination. They also offer according to the region insurance for cancellation or interruption of trips
Discounts on tickets to theme parks such as Walt Disney World, Universal studios and special holiday packages in some regions and also on cruises. Also in trips to Europe you can get benefits in the purchase of train tickets (Rail Europe).
The AAA website also includes reservations for hotels, flights, vacation planning, car rentals. If you contact the AAA branches, they will assist you in booking services for members and also in planning group trips.
Road trips and planning
The traditional benefits of AAA on the road include towing, assistance with flat tires, vehicle lockout service, fuel delivery and more, but there are other AAA travel benefits when it comes to hitting the road.
Hotels and accommodations with discounts
Using the search engine of AAA and also points are recognized in loyalty programs. The discount hotels are among others: Best Western, Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott and MGM Resorts
Is the AAA Travel membership profitable?
Only If you need a full-service vacation planner and also travel discounts. An agency like AAA Travel can save you time, money and effort. But you should compare if the membership fee is lower than the money savings in the first place. And if apart it saves time and effort, which are also money.
Global Discounts Program
Many mobility clubs around the world are active in AAA’s global discounts program. This means that they have partnerships throughout their countries where you can obtain discounts (attractions, museums, hotels, retail locations, and some restaurants). Follow this link to search for discounts when traveling to European countries. Please note that you will be required to present a valid AAA membership in order to be eligible to receive services from mobility clubs in other countries.
Check with your local AAA branch office about upgrading to a Premier membership to explore enhanced benefits when traveling overseas.
Louis Vuitton is a luxury clothing and accessories brand that has been standing out for more than 100 years for the exclusivity and absolute quality of its products. Louis Vuitton was born in 1821, in France in the province of Jura. He moved to Paris where he had an enormous success thanks to his great talent, with which he designed suitcases, luggage and travel gadgets. In 1854 he created his own brand (LV) and his own business, with remarkable success.
Louis Vuitton died, in 1892 leaving over his son Georges Vuitton control of the business.In this stage the company became international, opening stores in important places such as New York, and London.And of course in the Avenue Champs Elysées de Paris.Also patented the successful patterns created by Louis Vuitton, inspired in oriental textures, very typical of the Victorian era. Its most successful design was a flat-bottomed travel suitcase that was lighter and more comfortable than those on the market.
In 1936 George dies and the company is left in charge of his son Gaston. Mr G Vuitton focused on developing products with new raw materials that will work on the impermeability of handbags and dabble the search for new markets like the Asian where he arrived in 1978. The Louis Vuitton Luggage are the most luxurious in the world
After the Second WWII
History of Louis Vuitton: After the Second World War the success between 1945 and 2000 occurred because it had to do with the expansion of the catalogs of fashion accessories of the brand.It was during this time that LV incorporated the leather to its products, bringing to the market now not only travel cases, but also wallets, purses and bags.
Louis Vuitton’s business policy is never to make rebates on its products.The reason behind this decision is that the products maintain the perception of value by their customers.Louis Vuitton is convinced that its products are classic that generate value over time.
Louis Vuitton is a brand that produces luxury clothing and accessories that prints its personal stamp on every item it sells.The company LVHM(Louis Vuitton and Moët Hennessy) is the largest French manufacturer of luxury goods in the world (Louis Vuitton, Dior, Givenchy, Bulgari, Moët & Chandon among 70 other brands) and is chaired by Bernard Arnault.It has representation and sales in more than 60 countries.
Manufacturing of Louis Vuitton
Since the brand’s inception, the methods of artisanalmanufacturing of Louis Vuitton items have changed very little.The characteristic that has always distinguished LV is the value of exclusivity that it offers to its products.The attention to the smallest details in the termination of the products is the reason of its maximum quality.It maintains the value of exclusivity to its products and at the same time fights falsification, because it provides personalization services.In this way the brand provides the aura of distinction with the elegance of always to its customers.It is a brand with a soul.The soul of artisan Louis Vuitton.
History of Louis Vuitton: Anecdote
Anecdote: Drinking Champagne in a glass of water was simply intolerable.And every time she flew in first class she was forced to do it.Unable to continue to endure such an aberration, I entrust Louis Vuitton with a small briefcase to carry two good and beautiful crystal glasses.Thus, each time the stewardess opened a bottle of Möet & Chandon, she could take out her own glassware and enjoy the bubbles in a civilized way.Told by Patrick-Louis Vuitton, great-great-grandson of the founder of the legendary French firm, to the newspaper EL PAIS of Spain. Elegance, Charm and Style: Louis Vouton Handbags
The History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheelcranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Crane in the Port of Luneburg – Germany
The The History of the crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.
The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.
The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load
Anecdotes of the treadwheelcrane
In 1840, the Treadwheel crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time.
As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.
With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons.
Ostricher – Germany
The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop’s privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.
We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.
The history of crane in Oestricher is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.
This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.
The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.
Trier – Germany
Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.
The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.
A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain.
It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name “Alte Krahnen” in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.
Andernach – Germany
The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.
The Andernacher Krahnenwas the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.
History of The Crane
The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).
The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.
The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called “Kaiserbaum” or “support tree”. Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen – Germany
It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 “. And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler […] of all Babylon.”)
In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.
The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church’s hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.
As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.
On the second day we took a boat Vaporetto in San Marcos square. Previously we acquired a full day ticket that includes all the routes throughout the day. Our destination is the islands of Murano and Burano
Do you want to travel to France by car but have no idea what to do first?
What is necessary to travel around France and enjoy it, without having a nervous breakdown?
Do you go to another country in Europe and have to cross France by road?
Will you need to have an car accident lawyer on standby in case you’re involved in an accident?
Okay. The first thing that is needed is a lot of money. If you have it, stop reading and book a luxury hotel here. This post is not for you.
Now, if you have a more limited budget. This is the right place
Here we go
Know what are the rules of circulation in France
If you have ever driven in any foreign country or if it is the first time you do it, you should know that France is a country where you travel in a similar way as in the United States of America. The rules that you must respect are very similar
By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France,Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.
Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe(both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%).
Travelers on the Rise Every Year
The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”
The Saxon Switzerland National Park (Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz) is southeast of Dresden, and is part of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, up to the Czech Republic. The surface you are protected is 38,000 hectares of rock formations in the form of towers, originated by the Elbe River, which travelers who make the journey Dresden – Prague can see and be amazed
The Saxon Switzerland (Sächsische Schweiz), also known as the Elbsandstein hill (Elbsandsteingebirge), is located in the easternmost part of the federal state of Saxony that borders the Czech Republic. On the other side of the border the mountain of the Elbsandstein continues and bears the name of Switzerland Bohemia (Ceske Svycarsko).
Paris Travel Guide 2020: Walk in three days and get to know the main sites, included and some recommendations do not waste a minute of time
Arrived to Visit Paris on train to the station of Paris Gare du Nord from London.We took a public transport (Metro).Luckily the hotel was very close.
Before starting, I commented that there is an option for those who do not intend to walk: make a City Tour hop on-hop off, of which you can tour the main points of the city for one or two days. In Paris – France there are two very good companies: Big Bus and City Sigthseeing
We will start our route at the Arc de Triomphe (Charles de Gaulle-Etoile metro: lines 1, 2 and 6). We advise climbing to have a panoramic view of Paris. Once up, you can see the large avenues that start from here dividing the center of Paris, the financial district of La Defense and the famous Eiffel Tower.
The Residence of one of the founding fathers of the United States, Benjamin Franklin, is located on Craven Street (London ), just minutes from Trafalgar Square.
The house was built in 1730. It was inhabited by Franklin between 1757 and 1775. Currently, there is a museum and an educational center. Visitors can learn what Mr. Franklin’s student life was like. Also the experiments and scientific discoveries made in London.
Franklin’s main occupation in London was that of mediator between Britain and the United States. Meanwhile, science also occupied an important part of his life. I investigate, bifocal lenses and economic kitchens.
In the upper floor of the house there is a European coordination center for the study of Mr. Franklin. A complete set of Benjamin Franklin documents cataloged by Yale University can also be located. Also a symposium program
Bones at Benjamin Franklin’s house in London
As the house that Benjamin Franklin lived in London still existed, in 1998 it was thought to install in it a Museum dedicated to his memory. At the beginning of the remodeling work when digging in the basement, 15 bodies were found buried in a secret room that had no windows and looked under the garden. The skeletons were in a hole one meter wide by one meter deep. In total there were more than 1,200 pieces. Studies showed that they were from the time when Mr. Franklin lived in that house.
The head of these bones was the anatomist William Hewson, son-in-law of the owner of the house that housed Mr. Franklin. Hewson carried out anatomical studies in his home and possibly, due to the country’s restrictive laws on body dissections. The corpses were bought in the black market. Some of those bones had cuts, others had scalpel marks and even skulls. perforated
William Hewson died shortly after Mr. Franklin returned to the United States. The cause of death was due to an infection caused by a cut with the scalpel while dissecting a corpse.
Many doctors turned to the resurrectionists (body dealers) to get bodies to dissect. The remains of those that Hewson used went to that hole in the basement of his house after being used
Info for the visit
Benjamin Franklin’s house in London
36 Craven Street, London, WC2N 5NF
Architectural tour – Every Monday at 12:00, 13:00, 14:00, 15:15 and 16:15
School Day – Tuesday
Historical Experience – from Wednesday to Sunday at 1:00 p.m., 2:00 p.m., 3:15 p.m. and 4:15 p.m.
The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.
Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire
In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.
A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.
The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.
However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?
Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist
The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.
The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.
Marco Vitruvio Polión : Roman Crane & Hoist Architect
(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )
Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.
In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.
As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.