Ancient Mint Assayers in Spanish America

Mint Assayers in Colonial Times  

Places of Coinage, Essayers, Masters of the Mint  and Judges of Balance

Assayers in Spanish America

Each coin identifies the place of coinage and also the person responsible for the law of the coin (purity and weight) called the assayer. Usually the initials of the names were used and could be one or two assayers by minting. In the case of Philippines well into the nineteenth century also included the person responsible for balance. This is an example of how to identify these signs in coins.

Master mint Assayers - Argentine Ancient Coin 1815
Master Mint Assayers

Potosi: PS             Assayer  L Leandro Ozio  Value: ( Reales):

Assayers and Masters of Mints

The assayers were the artisans and those in charge and responsible for the law (purity) and weight of the metal, so they left their mark on the mint. These are some data on places of minting and initial assayers

Assayer =A  /  Reales= R

A 8 R 4 R 2 R 1 R 1/2 R

Mexico  M

FM 1772-1778
1783-1801
1772 -1777
1784 -1801
1803
1772-1777
1784-1801
1772-1777
1785-1802
1772-1777
1783-1800
FF 1777-1784 1778-1784 1778-1784
1786
1778-1785
1787-1788
1777-1784
FT 1801-1803 1801-1803 1801-1803 1801-1803 1801-1803
TH 1803-1810 1804-1808
1810
1804-1813 1804-1810 1803-1810
1813
HJ 1809-1813 1809-1812 1810-1813 1810-1815 1810-1813
JJ 1812-1821 1816-1821 1812-1821 1812-1821 1813-1821

Peru LM or LIMAE

JM 1762-1774 1762-1773 1762-1773 1762-1773
1782
1762-1773
MJ 1773-1780 1773-1780 1774-1780 1773-1780 1773-1780
MI 1780-1787 1780-1787 1780-1788 1780-1787 1780-1787
IJ 1787-1803 1787-1803 1787-1804 1787-1804 1787-1803
1805
JP 1803-1824 1804-1821 1803-1823 1803-1823 1803-1821

Potosi (Bolivia)   PS or PTS

JR 1770-1776 1770-1776 1770-1776 1770-1776 1770-1776
PR 1776-1795 1776-1795 1776-1795 1776-1795 1776-1795
PP 1795-1802 1795-1802 1795-1802 1795-1803 1795-1802
PJ 1803-1824 1803-1825 1803-1825 1803-1824 1803-1824
JL 1825 1825 1825 1825 1823- 1825
 J   1824-1825 1825 1825    
1813 1813 1813 1813 1813
 L  1815 1815 1815 1815 1815
FL 1815 1815 1815 1815 1815

Santiago (Chile)  S

1764        
DA 1790        
FJ 1809        

Chiloe (Chile)  Chi-loe  Over Potosi

PJ 1823        

Cuzco  

G 1824        

Guatemala  G or NG

1768-1784 1768-1783 1768-1783 1768-1783 1768-1783
1785-1821 1785-1821 1785-1821 1785-1821 1785-1821

Nuevo Reino (Colombia)    

NR  Nuevo Reino Santa Fe de Bogotá 

JF 1809-1810 1809-1810 1809-1810 1809-1810 1809-1810

Popayan (Colombia)  P

JF 1803-1810        

 

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Colonial Times Mint Assayers

Santiago (Chile) 1809  8 Reales FJ Francisco Rodriguez Brochero & Juan Maria de Bobadilla

As we have already had opportunity to comment, the death of a monarch had to wait a while for the arrival of its corresponding model of bust from the Peninsula. The case of Fernando VII is particular, its arrival to the throne in March of 1808 is accompanied with the Napoleonic invasion that forced the mints to make their own busts that we know as imaginary. In this case the dress is not Roman style but of time.

 

Santiago (Chile) 1809  8 Reales FJ Francisco Rodriguez Brochero & Juan Maria de Bobadilla
Santiago (Chile) 1809  8 Reales FJ

 


Santiago (Chile) 1790  8 Reales DA Domingo de Eyzaguirre y Agustin de Infante y Prado

Although Charles III had died on December 14, 1788, his bust continued to appear on the coins until 1791 at which time the official bust of the new monarch, Charles IV, was prepared. There are transitional pieces like the one in which only the ordinal of the king has been changed. The essay corresponded to Eyzaguirre and Infante responsible for the law in the first coinage of the new monarch.

Santiago (Chile) 1790  8 Reales DA


LIMA  (Peru).  8 reales.  IJ Ignacio Zenón de Gálvez y Juan Martínez de Roxas.

Very light lines of weight adjustment on the obverse. After the death of Carlos III in 1788 transicional types were minted with the ordinal IV waiting for the punzones of Madrid

  Master mint Assayers

1803

 

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LIMA ( Peru )  1762  8 escudos (oro) JM  .José Rodríguez Carasa y Manuel Iglesias Abarca

Real de a ocho - Assayers in spanish america Master mint Assayers


LIMA. 8 Escudos.   1771 JM  .José Rodríguez Carasa y Manuel Iglesias Abarca

 Master mint Assayers


Peru Lima (1808) 8 Reales  JP Juan Martínez de Roxas y Pablo Cano Melgarejo

First year of the imaginary bust of the mint of Lima. The portrait did not last more than four years and was coined in different sizes being the corresponding to 1808 the largest by far. The reason for the need to make imaginary portraits based on paintings from the Kingdom of Spain is none other than the Napoleonic invasion. The portraits of the monarchs arrived late to the colonies, which is why the portraits of Fernando VII were called until 1812 "Imaginarios". The portrait on which this bust was based was made in America by a local artist and that is why it is called Fernando VII the Inca or also known as bust of Indian.

Real de a ocho -Master mint Assayers

Other, Idem Assayer, Lima 1823 Over mint of PERU LIBRE

Master mint Assayers

Idem 1819

Master mint Assayers
Master of Mint Assayers

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▲ Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

Numismatic:  Argentine Ancient Coins

After the pronouncement of May 1810, Buenos Aires and the other provinces of the Río de la Plata began the campaign of independence, sending expeditions to the High Peru, focus of realistic resistance. The Argentines took the Imperial Villa of Potosi with their mint. Coins were minted in 1810, 1813 and 1815: the last two occupations were important from the monetary point of view, since the type that was issued until then with the real bust and Hispanic emblems – was changed by new coins that bore the symbols patriotic Union and Freedom. The same happened in the Philippines with coins minted in America, which were countermarked

Mint of Potosi

Potosi (for Argentine). Rio de la Plata. 1813  –  J Jose Antonio de la Sierra ( Assayer)

2 Reales
Argentine Ancient Coins

8 Reales

 

The patriotic victory of Salta in February 1813, left the free passage to the Argentine Auxiliary Army under the command of General Manuel Belgrano on May 7 of that year occupy Potosí. This city had been evacuated by March 10.  The Casa de Moneda was the object of greater attention, rehabilitating it, as the realists had plundered it by destroying materials, books and documents. In Buenos Aires, the General Constituent Assembly receives a draft from the Deputy Dr. Pedro J. de Agrelo that proposes, as an eminently political measure, the minting of an independent type of currency. The only alterations of the seal, replacing in the open dies the Spanish shield and the royal bust of Fernando VII by the seal of the Assembly and by the May sun.

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1815

  

8 Soles

Law 21 carats. 875 thousandths, weight: 27 grams. Fine gold: 23.6 grams. Edge: oblique grooving. Approximate module: 35 mm. There are 8 (eight) known copies in different museums. Shield with cannons and Drum


These first coins of Argentina

were coined in gold in the values ​​of 8, 2 and 1 escudos, and in silver in 8, 4, 2, 1 and ½ reales. There is no proof that shields of four have been sealed. Many officers of the Mint fled and for this reason they had to ascend to junior officers. Almost all were not trained enough to exercise the new positions, having committed many faults.

For example, the 2nd officer Pedro Venavidez was promoted to Mayor coiner and the office of assayer was entrusted to José Antonio de Sierra. It began with the minting of silver coins at the end of June. The pieces of gold are today of great rarity; Silver minting, on the other hand, was abundant in all values.

1815

Potosi ( For Argentine).Rio de la Plata.     F Francisco Jose de Matos & Leandro Ozio

  

8 Soles (Gold)

(S) SOL replaces the Spanish Coin (S) Escudo (SHIELD) in 1815


They show on the obverse a radiant sun, with eyes, nose, mouth and thirty-two straight and flamboyant rays alternating. The circular legend begins with PROVINCES OF THE RIO DE LA PLATA and continues on the other side with UNION AND FREEDOM. On the back there is a national emblem  then seal of the Assembly – without sun and simple silver coins; with trophies formed by two crossed cannons, two side flags and a drum at the foot in the gold ones.

Argentine. 8 Reales Mint of La Rioja (RA) Assayer P

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. Mint  of La Rioja,

1826

  
They also have the PTS monogram that identifies the Potosi mint. The initial J. corresponds to the assayer José Antonio de Sierra. The song of the silver coins has the shape of laurel leaves, while that of the gold pieces is obliquely striated.

 

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The last delivery of Coins was made on November 18, 1813, the same day that General Belgrano began his strategic withdrawal to Jujuy after the defeat in the Battle of Ayohuma. Many of the offices of the Casa de Moneda were destroyed with the purpose of depriving the Spanish Realists of a quick issuance of Coins, who only on December 9 could restart the coinage with the bust of Fernando VII.

1815

Potosi (For Argentine).Rio de la Plata.     L Leandro Ozio (Assayer)

 

8 Reales


On December 22, 1813, a notice was published, ordering the exchange of all the coins that were sealed for the Provinces of the Río de la Plata by those that had the bust of the King, giving a term of three days to the neighbors of the Villa Imperial de Potosi and three months to the neighbors of the nearby Provinces. But the population was reluctant to surrender, foreseeing a new occupation of Argentine troops. That happened in April of 1815; then the units commanded by General Jose Rondeau reconquered Potosi and the old mint again coined national currencies. On this occasion only pieces of silver were issued with the value in reais. Then, in the middle of the same year, a similar series was developed but with the value expressed in soles.

 

 

The change coincided with the entry into operation of a new assayer, as it was not possible to count on Sierra, who had acted in 1813. Because of this circumstance, the reals of 1815 show the initial F. corresponding to Francisco José de Matos.
In the denominated currencies soles of the same year, the F. appears accompanied of an L. by Leandro Ozio. Both improvised assayers and for that reason the coins of 1815 are of lower quality than fine established in the ordinances.

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The qualified engraving revolutionary authorities could not find either, because they fled they fled with the king’s troops and the office of minting had to be improvised with subordinate and amateur personnel. In this regard, spelling errors are noted in the pieces of 8 reales, knowing one copy coined with the word PRORVINCIAS and another with PROVICIAS.

The coins of 1815 are more abundant than those of 1813. Their coinage ceased with the defeat of General Rondeau in the Battle of Sipe-Sipe and the evacuation of Potosi which fell again into the hands of the Spaniards. Ten years later it became a city of the new Republic of Bolivia.

Argentine Ancient Coins: Enhene losing the mint of Potosi and the provinces of the High Peru, a remarkable shortage of currencies took place in all the Argentine North. The coins with the bust of the king disappeared from the market, leaving the old macuquinas, later falsified in great scale.
It should be noted that, having been minted for the last time in Potosi in 1773, these cut coins still circulated: they could only be eradicated in the second half of the 19th century. 


Argentine Ancient Coins

1815

Potosi (For Argentine).Rio de la Plata.     L Leandro Ozio

8 Reales


1828

 

1832

 

 

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1834

1836

    Argentine Ancient Coins

                    


          1838 

Argentine Ancient Coins.   Federal Rosist Currency

Mint of La Rioja

Confederate Republic of Argentina. (Republica Argentina Confederada)

  Argentine Ancient Coins

8 Escudos

Famatina mountain background, shield with Flags and the legend Eternal Loor to the Restorer (Eterno Loor al Restaurador ) and cannons. Denomination 8 Shields such as the Spanish monetary system.

The Restaurador is Juan Manuel de Rosas, leader of the Confederate side in the Argentine Civil War.

  Argentine Ancient Coins

8 Reales

Famatina mountain background, shield with laurels and the legend Eternal Loor to the Restorer (Eterno Loor al Restaurador ) and cannons. Denomination 8 Shields such as the Spanish monetary system.


1840

Argentine Ancient Coins . 8 Reales  – Unitary Currency First Version – Argentine Civil War

 Argentine Ancient Coins

Famatine mountain background, shield with laurels and sentenceIN UNION AND FREEDOM (EN UNION Y LIBERTAD ) and cannons such as the first coin of 1813 Denomination 8 Shields ( Escudos) . It is called rebel weight, first version. When General Brizuela lost power in the province of La Rioja evicted from power by the Unitarians, the governor who replaced them (federal) issued these coins, until La Rioja was retaken in 1841 by the federal troops, which reissued the Federal currency. The Legend REPUBLICA ARGENTINA appears for the first time. Argentine Ancient Coins

1840 

Argentine Ancient Coins. 8 Escudos  Unitary Currency Second Version – Argentine Civil War

  Argentine Ancient Coins

The shield of the Argentine nation is surrounded by flags 8 Escudos

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1840

Argentine Ancient Coins . 8 Reales  – Unitary Currency First Version – Argentine Civil War

 Argentine Ancient Coins

Famatine mountain background, shield with laurels and sentenceIN UNION AND FREEDOM (EN UNION Y LIBERTAD ) and cannons such as the first coin of 1813 Denomination 8 Shields ( Escudos) . It is called rebel weight, first version. When General Brizuela lost power in the province of La Rioja evicted from power by the Unitarians, the governor who replaced them (federal) issued these coins, until La Rioja was retaken in 1841 by the federal troops, which reissued the Federal currency. The Legend REPUBLICA ARGENTINA appears for the first time. Argentine Ancient Coins

1840 

Argentine Ancient Coins. 8 Escudos  Unitary Currency Second Version – Argentine Civil War

  Argentine Ancient Coins

The shield of the Argentine nation is surrounded by flags 8 Escudos


1852

Argentine Ancient Coins. 8 Reales Mint of Cordoba.

 Argentine Ancient Coins Argentine Ancient Coins

The mint of 8 reales of 1852 belongs to the provincial emission. Neither the word Argentina nor Republica appear on either side. Corresponds to a period of high institutional instability and national identity. It belongs to a coinage ordered by the caudillo in power at that moment, that as it was seen in the mint of the Rioja, modified the images to the pleasure of the ruler of the day. Denomination 8 Reales, following the Spanish tradition.

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