Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Strasbourg’s Cathedral

Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Cathedral of Strasbourg

We visited the Cathedral of Strasbourg 

The Cathedral of Strasbourg was the first cathedral of Germany (or Kingdom of Germania). Until the arrival of Louis XIV in 1681 and his minister of the war, the Marquess of Louvois that camped in the environs of Strasbourg and forced their submission to the French monarchy the 30 of September of 1681.

Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths

The Cathedral was delivered by the same Luis XIV The head of the Catholic bishopric of Strasbourg, Egon de Furstenberg. Absent from the city for almost 150 years, that way ended the period as an independent city.

Leer másMedieval Treadwheel Crane in Strasbourg’s Cathedral

The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France)
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis – Atenas – Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.


They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) –

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

 

Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Ancient Tourism
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)
During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.
Temple of Juno- Nimes France
Temple of Juno- Nimes France

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Roads — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).
ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line


Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia and Mausoleum of Glanum – Saint Remy de Provence – (France)

The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies

SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS
–SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS–
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 

The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno – Nimes – (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater of Nimes (France)

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Ritual

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

 

Rome amphitheater. Coliseum - History of Tourism
Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  – History of Tourism 

Religious Tourism in Middle Ages

Related Post

End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome


10 Travel Perfumes and Fragrances for Women 2020

Perfumes and Fragrances for Women. For travel & Leisure

Good Girl BY CAROLINA HERRERA 1.7 FL.OZ

SPRAY FOR WOMEN. DESIGNER:CAROLINA HERRERA in Amazon.com

Good Girl - Carolina Herrera Perfum - Perfumes and Fragrances for Traveling Women



Chánel No. 5 L’eau by Chánel

Eau De Toílette Spray 3.4 oz (Women)

Chánel No. 5 L'eau by Chánel - Perfumes and Fragrances for Traveling Women
Chánel No. 5 L’eau by Chánel

 


Versace Bright Crystal By Gianni Versace. Eau De Toilette

Inspired by a mix of floral fragrances inked by Donatella Versace, Bright Crystal is a fresh and sensual mix of refreshing pomegranate mixed with magnolia flowers and lotus flowers. It also has warm notes of musk and amber. Buy in Amazom.com Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019.

Versace Bright Crystal By Gianni Versace. Eau De Toilette - Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019


Victoria’s Secret Bombshell Body Mist 2.5oz Travel Size Perfumes

Victoria’s Secret Bombshells In Bloom Fragrance Mist is composed of an exclusive mix of pink freesia, red apple and water lily flowers. The design is based on floral amalgams: Fruity notes contribute to sensuality.  Buy in Amazom.com Travel Size Perfumes

Victoria's Secret Bombshell Body -Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019
Perfumes and Fragrances for Women 2020



Burberry My Black Eau de Parfum Spray, 3 Ounce

Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019. My Burberry Black fuses the scent of jasmine flower and peach nectar with a sensual touch of rose. You have notes of patchouli and roses. The sensation is to enjoy the aroma when opening a window in front of a flower garden opening after a rain. Romance. Sensual.  Buy in Amazom.com 

Burberry My Black Eau de Parfum Spray, 3 Ounce - Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019
Perfumes and Fragrances for Women 2020


Prada Sport Luna Rossa Eau De Toilette 3oz Travel Size Perfumes

Perfumes and Fragrances for Traveling Women: Prada designed this fragrance looking to express the living spirit of a boat competition. Besides that: Strong notes of ginger and juniper that can not hide a fresh lavender from French provence fields. Elegant aroma, fresh and with a lot of personality. It is very original and intense. Soft notes of vanilla.  Buy in Amazom.com Travel Size Perfumes

Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019


Cartier La Panthere Legere Women’s Eau de Parfum Spray, 2.5 Ounce

Most importantly: Sweet fragrance combines notes rich in strawberry and rhubarb. Also floral notes of gardenia. Touches and natural notes of musk and oak moss.  Buy in Amazom.com Travel Size Perfumes

 

Cartier La Panthere Legere Women's Eau de Parfum Spray, 2.5 Ounce- Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019



Jo Malone “Lime Basil & Mandarin Cologne 0.5oz” Travel Size Perfumes

Original fragrance with fresh notes of Lime Basil & Mandarin.  Buy in Amazom.com

Jo Malone "Lime Basil & Mandarin Cologne 0.5oz"Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019
Perfumes and Fragrances for Women 2020


BVLGARI Mon Jasmin Noir Eau de Parfum Spray, 0.3 Fluid Ounce

The jasmine flower symbol of beauty and sensuality is present in this refined, young and daring eau de parfum. Designed with a mix of jasmine, sambac and angelwing flowers. Top notes of citrus golden cedar and floral lily of the valley. These notes are present Notes: Golden Cedrat, lily of the valley, jasmine, sambac, Angelwing Jasmine, musky nougat, cedar, patchouli. Style Bright & Elegant. Perfumes and Fragrances for Traveling Women.  Buy in Amazom.com Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019

BVLGARI Mon Jasmin Noir Eau de Parfum - Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019


Dolce & Gabbana The One For Women. Eau De Parfum Spray 1oz

Eau de Toilette or Eau de Parfum.  The difference lies in the volume of perfume oil.

  • This Eau de Toilette contains 5-9%, Eau de Parfum contains more, usually 8-14%.
  • Eau de Parfums therefore last longer and smell more intense
  • Perfumes and Fragrances for Women 2020
Dolce & Gabbana Travel Size Perfumes for Women in 2019
Perfumes and Fragrances for Women 2020



 

Related Posr

 

How Many People Travel Vacations? Countries with more travelers

How many people travel vacations?: 10 Countries with more travelers

How Many People Travel Vacations?: The tourism specialist company Oyster.com noted that US employees leave an average of 658 million vacation days unused each year. For this reason I investigate which countries are the ones that use their vacations the most to travel.

Number of trips per year: 7.5

Finland tops the list of the most well-traveled citizens in the world. Per capita, the average Finnish Travel:

  • Domestic Trips 5.8 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    1.7 Per capita / year

Finns enjoy warmer destinations such as the Canary Islands and Turkey, as well as Las Palmas, Tenerife, (Spain),  Antalya (Turkey) and Chania (Greece), according to Finavia, a company that operates the country’s airports and navigation systems.

Finland - 10 Countries with more travelers 2019
Finland – 10 Countries with more travelers 2019


#2  Unites States of America

Number of trips per year: 6.7

There are no laws that grant U.S. citizens the right to an assigned number of vacation days. But the Americans occupy the second place in the ranking of travelers and tourists.

Grand Canyon - 10 Countries with more travelers 2019
Grand Canyon – 10 Countries with more travelers 2019
  • Domestic Trips 6.5 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    0.2 Per capita / year

Most Americans prefer to stay close to home. Most of the Americans who traveled abroad in 2016 visited Europe, the Caribbean, Asia, South America and Central America, according to the statistical report of the air passengers of the National Office of Travel and Tourism.

How Many People Travel Vacations? Countries with more travelers

New York Botanic Garden. - How Many People Travel Vacations?
New York Botanic Garden. – How Many People Travel Vacations?

And as for domestic travel, Americans continue to go to points like Charleston, New Orleans, Savannah, Santa Fe, Nashville, San Francisco, Chicago and New York.

Yellowstone National Park, Midway Geyser Basin. USA
Yellowstone National Park, Midway Geyser Basin. USA


#3  Sweden

Number of trips per year: 6

Per capita, Swedes plan an average of:

  • Domestic Trips 4.4 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    1.6 Per capita / year

The most common destinations for your vacation are Spain (Mallorca, Barcelona and Malaga) , Italy ( Sardinia, Sicily and Capri) . Outside Europe the most visited destination is New York City

Sweden - 10 Countries with more travelers
Sweden – 10 Countries with more travelers 2019

 

#4  Denmark

Number of trips per year: 5.3

The Denmarkns make a total of 5.3 trips each year :

  • Domestic Trips 3.9 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    1.4 Per capita / year

The winters of Denmark are long and the summer weather is unpredictable. Then Danes travel to places like Spain (Mallorca, Tenerife, Barcelona, Alhambra). Greece (Crete) and Malta for its warmer climate. They also visit these places for outdoor activities such as golf and hiking.

Denmark - 10 Countries with more travelers 2019
Denmark – 10 Countries with more travelers 2019

#5  Norway

Number of trips per year: 5.2

Noruegon travel:

  • Domestic Trips 3.2 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    2.0 Per capita / year

Norwegians are in fifth place as the most traveled citizens in the world. Many Norwegians still opt for an active holiday at home. “The Norwegians are improving in traveling around their own country,” says Kristin Krohn Devold, NHO (Confederation of the Norwegian Enterprise). Many have their own cabins in the most remote areas of the country where they go during their free time for long walks or skiing.

Norway - 10 Countries with more travelers
Norway – 10 Countries with more travelers 2019


#6  Hong Kong

Number of trips per year: 4.6

  • Domestic Trips 0.3 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    4.3 Per capita / year

Hong Kong is the only Asian country in the top 10 in the Travel & Tourism Intelligence Center study. Residents spend more time on international trips (4.3) than on domestic trips (0.3). Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are among the few places for those who enjoy traveling outside the country. Somehow, all three places satisfy interests, which include food, wine, shopping. Also enjoy hot springs.

Hong Kong - How Many People Travel Vacations?
Hong Kong – How Many People Travel Vacations?

#7  New Zealand

Number of trips per year: 4.3

  • Domestic Trips 3.8 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    0.5 Per capita / year

New Zealand  Citizens have 3.8 domestic trips and 0.5 trips abroad. With three or four hours flight and distance, Fiji and Australia are the list of international vacation destinations.
The coast of Australia, particularly the Gold Coast and the Coast of the Sun, is usually the main destination of most New Zealanders traveling outside the country.

New Zealand - How Many People Travel Vacations?
New Zealand – How Many People Travel Vacations?

#8  Canada

Number of trips per year: 4.1

Canadians travel:

  • Domestic Trips 3.1 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    1.0 Per capita / year

Per capita, Canadians take 3.1 domestic trips and 1 international trip each year. The United States, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France and Cuba are some of the best places they visit when traveling abroad. US cities like New York City Las Vegas, Chicago and Seattle are popular options. According to Newspapers Canada, about 45 percent of Canadians travel within the country. The main destinations are in western Canada (Ontario and Quebec).

Moraine Lake - Canada
Moraine Lake – Canada 2019


#9  Australia

Number of trips per year: 3.8

  • Domestic Trips 3.4 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    0.4 Per capita / year

Australians make a total of 3.8 trips per year, including 3.4 domestic getaways and 0.4 international vacations. Many are trips to local beach destinations (Sydney, Melbourne, and Queensland are favorites). “Australians love to walk in a magnificent natural environment like Tasmania, Victoria and any national park, many of them located along the coast of the country,” says Julie Earle-Levine of Tourism Australia.

Bali, London and India are the most popular destinations when Australians make a trip abroad.

Australia is one of the 10 Countries with more travelers 2019 

- Sidney - How Many People Travel Vacationsi n in 2019?
Sidney – How Many People Travel Vacations in 2019?

#10  How Many People Travel Vacations?: France

Number of trips per year: 3.5

How Many People Travel Vacations?: France is one of the most visited countries a year. But the fans travel very little outside their country. The French make 3.1 domestic trips and 0.4 annual international trips. A trip somewhere in the country is more common.

  • Domestic Trips 3.1 Per capita / year
  • Foreign Trips    0.4 Per capita / year

 The international destinations visit are:

“In general, it depends on the region of France from which it comes, but the tendency is to visit the coastal cities,” they say from the Tourism Development Agency of France. For example, it is not uncommon for Bordeaux residents to make a trip to Biarritz or for Parisians to plan a short trip to Normandy. Also Corsica is a very popular destination

How Many People Travel Vacationsin in 2019? - Paris
How Many People Travel Vacations in in 2019? – Paris

Maybe you’re interested too

External Links


 

 

Travel to France by Car : Quick Guide

Travel to France by Car

 Are you planning to make a road trip through France?

  • Do you plan to rent a car in France to get to know the country?
  • Do you want to travel to France by car but have no idea what to do first?
  • What is necessary to travel around France and enjoy it, without having a nervous breakdown?
  • Do you go to another country in Europe and have to cross France by road?
  • Will you need to have an car accident lawyer on standby in case you’re involved in an accident?

Okay. The first thing that is needed is a lot of money. If you have it, stop reading and book a luxury hotel here. This post is not for you.

Now, if you have a more limited budget. This is the right place

Here we go

Automobile club de France


Know what are the rules of circulation in France

If you have ever driven in any foreign country or if it is the first time you do it, you should know that France is a country where you travel in a similar way as in the United States of America. The rules that you must respect are very similar

Travel to France by Car
Travel to France by Car, Paris

Accessories for the car and the trip

Leer másTravel to France by Car : Quick Guide

How Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

How many People Travel the World?: 1.45 Billion

By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France, Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.

Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe (both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%). 

madrid Paris People will Travel the World in 2019
How Many People Travel the World in 2019?

Travelers on the Rise Every Year

The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”

Leer másHow Many People will Travel the World in 2019?

Complete Paris Travel Guide 2020

Paris Travel Guide 2020 : First Day

Paris Travel Guide 2020: Walk in three days and get to know the main sites, included and some recommendations do not waste a minute of time

Arrived to Visit Paris on train to the station of Paris Gare du Nord from London. We took a public transport (Metro).Luckily the hotel was very close.

Before starting, I commented that there is an option for those who do not intend to walk: make a City Tour hop on-hop off, of which you can tour the main points of the city for one or two days. In Paris – France  there are two very good companies: Big Bus and City Sigthseeing

Paris Travel Guide 2020: 3 days 

Arc de Triomphe & Grand Palais

Download The Complete Guide: Paris Travel Guide 2020  

We will start our route at the Arc de Triomphe (Charles de Gaulle-Etoile metro:  lines 1, 2 and 6). We advise climbing to have a panoramic view of Paris. Once up, you can see the large avenues that start from here dividing the center of Paris, the financial district of La Defense and the famous Eiffel Tower.

Leer másComplete Paris Travel Guide 2020

◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Crane
Ancient Rome Crane

 

The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.

Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire

In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.


Pentaspastos

A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Roman crane

Ereaders


The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.

However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?

Ancient Rome Books

Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist

The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.

The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.

 

Marco Vitruvio Polión : Roman Crane & Hoist Architect

(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )

Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.

Ancient Roman Crane engineers
Ancient Roman Crane engineers

In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.

As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.

Roman Cranes = Medieval Treadwheel Cranes

The Roman crane  ( treadwheel crane) almost unchanged or modified will be used until the modern age and in some cases until the mid-nineteenth century as in the ports of Germany. Some are still today in their original places of construction. As an example we will put the Cathedral of Strasbourg (France) and the Church Beverley Minster (England)

Roman crane

Roman Crane: Vitruvius the ten books on architecture on Amazon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman crane
Roman Crane Today

History Of Tourism Greece. Roman Empire and Middle Ages

Related Post 

 

Ancient Cranes in Pinterest

A colaboration of : Besthoist.com

 

5 World Oldest Coffee Shops

Oldest Coffee Shops in The World

These Coffee Houses exist today. All are old, some more luxurious than others. Some true works of art. Others have a lot of history. They met writers, politicians, revolutionaries. Conspiracies were forged. Everyone has coffee in common.

Having a coffee in these places is sharing it with Dante, Casanova, Dickens, Danton and so many other characters in History. Maybe some of them are there. Sharing a coffee in any of its forms. Visiting these places is living history with a coffee in hand.


Smart Slider

Café Procope - Paris

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

In 1686 when Louis XIV reigned over France from the palace of Versailles, in Paris the Cafe Procope opened its doors. Just 20 years after the introduction of coffee in the court of Louis XIV.
An Italian named Francesco Procopio Dei Coltelli opened an establishment near Saint-Germain-des-Prés where this infusion would be tested in society. The establishment was opened to sell coffees and ice cream, specialties that the Italians exported to the main European capitals.
It is the oldest coffee house in the world

Since 1686

Café Florian - Venice

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

The Cafè Florian inaugurated it in 1720 rl Mr. Floriano Francesconi. The original name was "Alla Venezia Trionfante" (Venice the triumphant). The name change occurred when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the city. The owners of that time put the name of the founder FLORIAN. Notable people, like Goethe and Casanova were regulars. Especially because it was the only Coffee House that allowed women. Lord Byron, Marcel Proust and Charles Dickens were also frequent visitors. It is one of the most oldest coffee shops in the world

Since 1720

Café Cafe Colombo - Rio de Janeiro

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

Portuguese immigrants Joaquim Borges de Meireles and Manuel José Lebrão founded this Coffee House in 1894. Its architectural style is Art deco. The rooms renovated with Art Noveau style with mirrors brought from Antwerp. The wooden furniture is from the artisan Antônio Borsoi. It is located at Rua Gonçalves Dias, 32 • Centro - Rio de Janeiro / RJ.
The oldest coffee shops in Brazil. Also the most luxurious

Since 1894

Café New York - Budapest

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

The New York Life Insurance Company built a luxurious building in the early 1890s. It was located in Erzsébet körút 9-11. It is the VII district of Budapest (Erzsébetváros).
In the basement of the building is the Coffee House New York. It was inaugurated on October 23, 1894 and survived two world wars and the Communist regime without major damage.
After a restoration process initiated in 2001, the coffee was reopened again on May 5, 2006. It is one of the most luxurious coffee shops in the world

Since 1894

Majestic Cafe - Porto

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

The Coffee shop Majestic located in Rua de Santa Catarina # 122, opened its doors in 1921 with the name of “Elite”. It was designed by architect Joao Queirós inspired by the work of maestro Marques da Silva. At its inauguration attended all the personalities of the political and artistic world.In 1922, the name was changed to the current one. Art Deco style was one of the most luxurious places in Oporto. The marble facade is adorned with plant motifs of sinuous shapes. A trio of charming columns marks the facade. It is one of the best Decorated coffee shops in the world

Since 1921
previous arrow
next arrow
Slider

 

 

World Oldest Coffee Shops
Cafe Colombo – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil * Oldest Coffee Shops


History Of Tourism Greece. Roman Empire and Middle Ages

Maybe you’re interested too

Cinema in the Louvre Museum

Cinema Paradiso Louvre Museum

The 30th anniversary of the construction of the Louvre pyramid in Paris, is celebrated. For this reason, open-air films will be screened, free of charge at the Museum’s Cour Carrée.

The event will be called Cinema Paradiso Louvre, and began on Friday, July 19. It will be until July 26 inclusive. A film was projected every night. The main objective of Cinema Paradiso Louvre is to promote visits to the museum.

The films will be screened starting at 10 pm and it is necessary to book, through the official website of the event. For people in Paris, this is a unique opportunity.

inema Paradiso Louvre Museum
inema Paradiso Louvre Museum

Program

 ♦ Friday, July 19th – Queen Margot
A film by Patrice Chéreau. With Isabelle Adjani, Jean-Hugues Anglade and Daniel Auteuil. 1994 (2:39).

♦ Saturday, July 20 – Asterix and Obelix: Cleopatra Mission
A film by Alain Chabat. With Monica Bellucci, Christian Clavier, Gerard Darmon, Jamel Debbouze, Gerard Depardieu. 2002 (1:47).

♦ Sunday, July 21st – Faces Villages – Screening in the presence of JR.
A documentary film by and with JR and Agnès Varda. 2017 (1:34).

♦ Monday, July 22 – Cinema Paradiso
A film by Giuseppe Tornatore. With Philippe Noiret, Jacques Perrin, Salvatore Cascio. 1989 (2h04).

♦ Tuesday, July 23 – Indiana Jones and the last crusade
A film by Steven Spielberg. With Harrison Ford, Sean Connery, Denholm Elliott. 1989 (2h07).

♦ Wednesday, July 24 – Da Vinci Code
A film by Ron Howard. With Tom Hanks, Audrey Tautou, Jean Reno. 2006 (2:32).

♦ Thursday, July 25 – Chihiro’s Journey
An animated film by Hayao Miyazaki. 2001 (2h05).

♦ Friday, July 26 – When Harry meets Sally
A film by Rob Reiner. With Billy Crystal, Meg Ryan, Carrie Fisher. 1989 (1h36).

Maybe you’re interested too

 

History of Café Procope: Oldest Coffee Shop in Paris

History of Café Procope: Literary and Revolutionary

The History of Café Procope is as follows: In 1686 when Louis XIV reigned over France from the palace of Versailles, in Paris the Cafe Procope (Oldest Coffee Shop) opened its doors. Just 20 years after the introduction of coffee in the court of Louis XIV.

History of Café Procope: Oldest Coffee Shop in Paris
History of Café Procope: Oldest Coffee Shop in Paris

An Italian named Francesco Procopio Dei Coltelli opened an establishment near Saint-Germain-des-Prés where this infusion would be tested in society. The establishment was opened to sell coffees and ice cream, specialties that the Italians exported to the main European capitals

Three years later, the installation of the recent Comédie Française on the same street attracted the show’s clientele.

Leer másHistory of Café Procope: Oldest Coffee Shop in Paris

French Traditional Recipe Onion Soup.

Ingredients for onion soup. French traditional recipe

  • 6 large and sweet onions
  • 30 ml (1 oz) of extra virgin olive oil (2 tablespoons)
  • 60 g (2 oz) of butter
  • 1 clove garlic
  • 2 (70 oz.) Liters of meat broth
  • 12 slices of baguette bread
  • 3 tablespoons of wheat flour
  • 1 teaspoon of sugar
  • Salt and freshly ground black pepper (to taste)
  • 30 ml (1 oz) of brandy or cognac
  • 120 g (4 oz) of soft grated cheese (Gruyère type)

How to prepare French Onion Soup

Onion French Soup: a  exquisite, traditional and basic recipe in any self-respecting kitchen. A delicious and simple dish that can be a first course at Christmas or a unique dish with a large bowl of soup at a homemade dinner.

Today we present the modern version of this soup originating in France, made with dry bread, broth and caramelized onions.

French Traditional Recipe Onion Soup.
French Traditional Recipe Onion Soup.

Leer másFrench Traditional Recipe Onion Soup.

No More Tourist Buses in Paris

No More Tourist Buses in Paris City

The inhabitants of Paris (France) claim more space in the streets and to achieve it. It will seek to prohibit the entry of tourist buses into the city center.

No more tourist buses in Paris
No more tourist buses in Paris

 

Emmanuel Gregoire, Deputy Mayor of Paris, informed that it is necessary to attend to a complaint from the inhabitants of Paris. It is about securing more space of circulation in the streets of the City.


The way to achieve this is to prohibit the entry of tourist buses that circulate in the center of the city of Paris. We are talking about all the companies that have tourist buses.

No more tourist buses in Paris

Leer másNo More Tourist Buses in Paris

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Roman Empire: Routes & Network on Line Calculator

Land and Maritime

Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire.
You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator and Trade Network

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Choose the place of departure and destination

And press calculate

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt

Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road londinium to coptos

Costs in denarii

In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62
Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29
Per passenger in a car: 2778.04

Cartago Nova to Rome

Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain)  to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network - Cartago nova to Rome

Same route as the previous one but in winter

Cartago nova to Rome in winter

Londinium to Rome in winter and summer

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator:  from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route

29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator - londinium to Rome in winter
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

 

A Little History of Roman Roads

The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before.
He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire.
The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.

The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative.  The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire

 

Similar Post