The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France)
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis – Atenas – Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

 

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.

They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

 

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) –

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

 

Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Ancient Tourism
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)
During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.
Temple of Juno- Nimes France
Temple of Juno- Nimes France

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Roads — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

ORBIS  – University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).

Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia and Mausoleum of Glanum – Saint Remy de Provence – (France)

The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies

SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS
–SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS–
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 
The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.
Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater – Orange – France — Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler’s name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

 

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno – Nimes – (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

 

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those compestres places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today’s day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater of Nimes (France)

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Ritual

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the shrine of Artemis Ortia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

 

Rome amphitheater. Coliseum - History of Tourism
Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  – History of Tourism 

Religious Tourism in Middle Ages

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End of the first part : Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Best Travel Power Bank 2020

Travel Power Bank 2020

This is a selection of the best Travel Power Banks to charge any electronic device during a trip. Smatphone, eReaders or any accessory that can be charged by USB port. There are available from 1,000 mAH to 85,000 mAH. 

To provide power to your travel devices, up to 89800 mAH

9000 mAh

Waterproof Charger- with Emergency LED Flashlight for Outdoor Activities

travel gadget: Water/Shock/Dust Proof
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
89800 mAh

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Vovomay - Travel Gadget
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
5000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank - Travel Gadget
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
50000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Travel Gadget - Power Bank
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
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Tips (7) to choose a Travel Power Bank 2020

Price

We can find external batteries of great quality from US $ 20 to no more than 50-60 euros. Cheaper batteries usually have a capacity of 10,000 mAh, enough to charge an iPhone up to 3 times. While the most powerful batteries have up to 85,000 mAh load.

Capacity

All the models in our list have a minimum capacity of 10,000 mAh to be able to charge the mobile phone at least 3 times. The most powerful batteries, + – 26,000 mAh allow to charge our mobile at least 8 times

Weight and size

Again, the weight and size are linked to the load capacity of the external battery. lighter batteries can weigh less than 10 oz (250 grams) with very small dimensions that make us not realize that we are carrying them. The most powerful external batteries usually have a weight of around 20 Oz (500 grams)

Security 

Verify that the models have the latest advances in security:

  • Protection against overheating
  • Overcurrent protection
  • Overvoltage protection
  • Protection against short circuits

Departure ports

Most of the best Trip Power bank have at least 2 output ports to be able to charge two devices at the same time. Some chargers have up to 5 output ports between USB, lightning, micro USB …

Ports of entry

The vast majority of chargers have a single input port to charge the external battery from the electric current. However, there are chargers that have 2 input ports reducing by half the charging time of the external battery if you have 2 cables.

Warranty time

All models have at least 1 year warranty by the manufacturer. The vast majority have 18 months and some of them have a lifetime guarantee!

30000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Solar Chargers 30,000mAh, Dualpow Portable Dual USB Solar Battery Charger

Solar Battery Charger External Battery Pack Phone Charger Power Bank with Flashlight for Smartphones Tablet Camera (Baby Blue)
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
26800 mAh

Zendure A8PD 26800mAh - 5-Port Quick Charge External Battery for iPhone X, Nintendo Switch, Samsung S9 and More

Travel gadget Power Bank
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
20000 mAh

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Car Jump Starter Pack Booster Charger Battery Power Bank

Zendure X6 USB-C Hub Portable Charger 20000mAh, 45W PD & QC 3.0 Power Bank with LED Display, 5 USB Ports

External Battery Pack for MacBook, iPhone, Galaxy, Smartwatches
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
30000 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Solar Chargers 30,000mAh, Dualpow Portable Dual USB Solar Battery Charger

Dual USB output charging ports and Charge Fast: allow you to charge 2 digital devices simultaneously, also, it charges your phone very fast with the 2.1 usb port
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
20100 mAh

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

Power Bank LCD LED 4 USB Battery Charger for Mobile Phone

AC Outlet Power Bank RAVPower 20100mAh External Battery Pack 65W

Built in 2-Prong AC Plug Travel Charger Compatible for MacBook, Surface Pro, Dell XPS 13, iPhone Xs, Galaxy S9, Note 8
Travel gadget-power bank 8900mah
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Check if an external battery is suitable for air travel

The regulation specifies that the nominal capacity must be less than 100 Wh (Watt-Hour). That is to say: any power bank with a capacity lower than 27000 mAh (at 3.7V) is apt to be carried on an airplane as carry-on luggage.  – See the TSA regulations

How is the nominal capacity calculated in Wh?

Normally, the Travel power bank specification sheet usually indicates its nominal capacity in Ah and Wh but, if you can not find it, you can calculate it for yourself:

As you already know, a power bank consists of a set of lithium-ion batteries of a certain capacity and a voltage between 3.6 Volts 3.8 Volts.

To know the nominal capacity in Watt-hour (Wh) you must multiply the total capacity of the power bank indicated in mAh by this voltage and divide by 1000:

Rated capacity (Wh) = (mAh x V) / 1000

For example: An external battery with a capacity of 20000 mAh and a voltage of 3.7V, the nominal capacity will be:

Rated capacity = (20000 mAh x 3.7V) / 1000 = 74 Wh <100 Wh

 

Laptop & Smartphone Travel Power Bank

185Wh/50000mAh(Max.130W) Portable Laptop Charger External Battery Pack for Laptop-Dell HP Lenovo Surface pro Sony Samsung Acer Toshiba iPad Phone Notebook – MAXOAK  on Amazon.com

Travel Power Bank
Travel Power Bank 2019-2020

Travel Power Bank

Travel Power Bank 2019 - 2020
Travel Power Bank 2019 – 2020

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History Of Tourism Greece. Roman Empire and Middle Ages

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