How Many People will Travel the World?

How many People Travel the World?: USA 2020: Covid19 TSA checkpoint travel numbers 2020 and 2019 Comparison of the number of passengers according to TSA from 3/1/2020 to present day Predictions of the number of people traveling the world in 2020 are no longer valid due to the COVID19 pandemic – The table above shows the evolution of traffic in the United States (abrupt decline at the beginning of the year) from January 2020 to data from Set 2020 according …

Read MoreHow Many People will Travel the World?

The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France)

Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

 

Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis - Atenas - Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

 

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.

They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

 

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

 

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) -

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire, the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Ancient Tourism
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

Temple of Juno- Nimes France
Temple of Juno- Nimes France

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea

Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julio César, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).

A Denarius per Mile

Besides being dangerous, traveling in ancient Rome was also very expensive, especially by Land. Only those who had good reasons to travel traveled, be they economic or, more often, military. A long overland carriage ride could cost on the order of a denarius per mile. According to the Bible, a denarius was the daily salary of a worker, so one can get used to the idea of the enormous economic effort involved in moving around the Empire.


Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.


Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia and Mausoleum of Glanum - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)

The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies

SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS
--SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS--
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents

Gaius Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping

Julius Caesar, in 75 B.C. He had had to flee from Rome since he was at odds with the Roman dictator Sila. Banished to the Aegean Islands to avoid the assassins of Sila, he devoted himself to study and prepare for when he returned to Rome. It was just on a trip to study at the Oratory and Eloquence Academy of Molon of Rodas was tackled by sackcloth pirates - (Cilicia, on the south coast of present-day Turkey)

The pirates valued the rescue to be requested by the crew in a total of 20 talents. Julius Caesar to the astonishment of the pirates, he told them to ask for nothing more and nothing less than 50 talents for his life. Obviously the pirates had nothing to object to.

A talent corresponded to the weight of a cubic foot of water, which in ancient Rome amounted to 75 Pounds / 1200 oz. If we say that gold, today, is U$S 1400 per Oz, Total are U$S 1,680,000 per tatent

Gaius Julius Caesar was transferred to the island of Farmacusa (off the coast of Halicarnassus), where he stayed, together with a friend and two servants held by the pirates. The rest of the crew was sent to seek rescue. It was 38 days before the envoys came with the money, in which the chroniclers (Plutarch, especially) tells that Julius Caesar, rather than being imprisoned, lived like a king

He dedicated himself to sports, writing poetry, studying and writing speeches - which forced his kidnappers to listen - and even silenced the pirates when they wouldn't let him sleep.

During his captivity, Julius Caesar threated that when he was released, he would capture them, recover the money and crucify them. Obviously, the pirates didn't take it too seriously. Once the rescue was obtained Julio César was released

Once released he went to Pergamum, where he got 500 soldiers and 4 ships, returning to Farmacusa and catching the pirates in full celebration for their loot, capturing them without too much trouble. The 350 pirates were taken to Pergamum again. There, Julius Caesar sent everyone to 30, who were crucified as he had promised. of course, as a humanitarian detail made them slaughter before crucifying them.

In this way, Julius Caesar  apart from creating a reputation that did not leave him until Bruto murdered him many years later, he managed to keep the 50 rescue talents. 

1

Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 
The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.

Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler's name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

 

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

Pompeii History
Pompeii History of Tourism

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those country places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today's day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater of Nimes (France)

 

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

 

The Ritual

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

 

Rome amphitheater. Coliseum - History of Tourism
Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  - History of Tourism 


Ischia & Capri: Two Islands to Fall in Love

Ischia & Capri: Islands to Fall in Love During the Middle Ages a watchtower was built over its ruins. In the nineteenth century also a defensive wall.Table of Contents – Capri & Ischia. Near of Pompeii National Park. Capri : Exclusive Tourism from the Roman Empire Capri is an island located at the southern end of the Bay of Naples in Italy. It was already known in the Roman Empire for its beautiful landscapes. The Romans made this island a …

Read MoreIschia & Capri: Two Islands to Fall in Love

Erotic Pompeii: The City was really so obscene?

Erotic Pompeii: The City was really so obscene? : A little of History.

Erotic Pompeii: Traveling to a Different Pompeii, we will answer that question.  Pompeii is located in the south of Italy. barely two hours away by train from Rome. The story is quite familiar. The city is located on the slopes of Vesuvius, a volcano that on August 24, 79 AD, broke and buried the city in a sea of ​​ash. More than 20,000 people died in that event.
It remained in oblivion until the eighteenth century, when under the domination the location of this city was rediscovered (the name was not even known) and excavations began.

 

Centennial House - Fresco of the two lovers-Erotic Pompeii
Centennial House - Fresco of the Two Lovers - Erotic Pompeii

Complete Pompeii (Complete Series) on amazon

Pompeii: An Archaeological Guide ( Amazon)

The Excavations Show

Thermal baths, luxury residences, free diving houses, gymnasiums, artisan workshops and brothels were gradually appearing. In those places there were architectural remains such as mosaics, frescoes and sculptures. Some of them almost intact.
These findings speak of a sophisticated, well-off and evolved life. We must bear in mind that part of the aristocracy of the Roman era, had its villas in Pompeii and made tourism in that city and on the nearby island of Capri.

House of the Fauno -satyr and nymph-Pompeii
House of the Fauno -satyr and nymph-Pompeii

Also appeared part of the erotic life of pompeii. frescoes, murals, sculptures, lamps, amulets and even artifacts that we do not yet know their use and meaning.

House of the Epigrama - Satyr that hugs a Nymph. -Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii
House of the Epigrama - Satyr that hugs a Nymph.

Wide Freedom of Customs

Touring the streets and houses of Pompeii, the paintings and bas-reliefs with erotic motifs ranging from "Satyr and Maenad" (House of the Faun) or "Pan and the Hermaphrodite" (House of the Dioscuri), Some are sexually explicit as the " Priapus with his phallus "(House of the Vetii).

Phallus Lantern - Archaeological Museum of Naples -Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii
Phallus Lantern - Archaeological Museum of Naples

The paintings are not limited to private places, such as the lupanar (brothel) or public baths, but can also be seen inside private homes, gardens and public use spaces shared by all. You have in the streets with phalluses signaling the sense of traffic.

Aphrodite Anadyomene - Vettii House Pompeii
Aphrodite Anadyomene - Vettii House Pompeii

 

Pompeii: A Novel  -  on amazon

Pompeii - Disaster Street -  ( Amazon)

Erotic Pompeii - Phalluses on The Streets

One of the possible explanations was these images had ritual or religious value, and linked the phallic figures with the force generating or creating nature. They were also used to give good luck to a commercial establishment. 

Phalluses on the Walls of Pompeii Houses. for Prosperity-Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii
Phalluses on the Walls of Pompeii Houses. for Prosperity - Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii

Under Protection of the Gods

Erotic artifacts were found from the seventeenth century, and accumulated outside the view of the public in the Borbonic Museum (now Archaeological Museum of Naples), where I created a special room to store them.

Phalluses on the Walls of Pompeii Houses. for Prosperity -Pompeii

Gabinetto Segreto - Obscene Objects Cabinet

In 1817 a first selection of artifacts was made to exhibit in the museum. In 1819, King Francis I of the Two Sicilies visited the Pompeii exhibition and the National Archaeological Museum of Naples with his wife and daughter. There he was scandalized with erotic art in such a way that he ordered it to be removed from the public view and confined to a secret room. Then the objects classified as obscene and indecent, were confined to the special room without any kind of order and the door was sealed at that time. Only in 1860 the room was opened and the artifacts were inventoried.

Tintinnabulum - Lucky Bells - Archaeological Museum of NaplesTraveling to a Different Pompeii
Tintinnabulum - lucky bells - Archaeological Museum of Naples

 

The secret room (Gabinetto Segreto in Italian) was opened with a special order obtained only by mature gentlemen of good manners. Also after having paid a large amount of money. In the same ruins of Pompeii, screens were placed on frescoes and obscene paintings and only with special invitation and payment were they shown to select tourists.

Lupanar - Brothel - Pompeii (2)-Pompeii was really so obscene?-
Lupanar - Brothel - Pompeii

Eros Happened

Over the years the room remained closed until Giuseppe Garibaldi ordered it to be opened again. That happened in 1860 during the Italian unification and when Garibaldi conquered Naples in that year

Lupanar - Brothel - Pompeii (3) -Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii
Lupanar - Brothel - Pompeii Eros

 

In 1866 a catalog of artifacts was published, but from that moment the official censorship of the Kingdom of Italy was restricting access until it was closed, in accordance with the customs and political winds of the moment.

Centennial House - Ménade and Satyr-Traveling to a Different Pompeii
Centennial House - Ménade and Satyr

At the time of the Mussolini Dictator visits were forbidden for not agreeing the vision of the new Italy (pure) with obscene artifacts of the ancient Romans. In the Fascist era, it could be visited with express authorization from the Ministry of Education.

Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii

 

The censorship - Erotic Pompeii

The censorship was maintained after the end of the war until 1967, where the work of cataloging and restoring the artefacts of the obscene room was resumed.

House of the caccia antiqua. Tablinum. Fresco by Polyphemus and Galatea - Pompeii
House of the caccia Antiqua. Tablinum. Fresco by Polyphemus and Galatea - Erotic Pompeii

The room was definitely reopened to the public since April 2000. While there is no censorship of any kind, there is a legend that warns about the special content of the room. In addition, children under 14 can only enter if accompanied by their parents or teachers

House of Cecilio Giocondo Pompeii-Pompeii was really so obscene? Traveling to a Different Pompeii
House of Cecilio Giocondo - Pompeii Eros

Stromboli Volcano ( New 2019)

Stromboli Volcano, southern Italy, erupting on July 3, 2019Stromboli Volcano, southern Italy, erupting on July 3, 2019

Tips to visit pompeii

  • Arrive early in the morning. Complete travel takes the whole day.
  • Wear comfortable shoes. Yes possible trekking shoes.
  • Most of the streets are made of stone blocks. Be guided when walking.
  • Bring sunscreen.
  • Head protection Hats, caps.
  • Carry the right equipment. Here more information
  • Take a guide, Arming a tour before going to avoid losing time.If you do not go on a guided tour, check the schedule of the last train to Naples or Sorrento.

How to get to Pompeii

From Rome.

Train to the central station of Naples. Then in the same central station, in the subsoil is the local Trans-Vesuvian train. Ask about the Pompeii- Scavi station. The departure of trains in this station is somewhat chaotic with schedules and cancellations, ask until you make sure. This station has several branches and only one reaches the ruins of Pompeii, You can also take a bus, although we do not recommend it.

From Sorrento

Transvesuvian train in the direction of the central station of Naples. Ask about the Pompeii- Scavi station.

More info: 

 

Maybe you’re interested too

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Roman Empire: Routes & Network on Line Calculator Land and Maritime Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire. You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples Roman Empire: Roads Calculator Start of the application. With the …

Read MoreRoman Empire: Roads Calculator