◙ Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines 

A collaboration of Marty Martinez

The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.

From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God Philippine Resealed Coin

As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route.  Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.

Circulated coins,  were also circulated after 1828, which for different reasons, arrived on the island. It should be noted that the Spanish monetary system at that time was adopted by all American countries (including the United States and Canada). Also some countries of Africa, and it meant what today is the dollar-USA monetary system. Denominations of the currencies of the new countries were also made in Reals.

Peruvian Republic - Lima

Coins Resealed. by Fernando VII for its circulation in Manila (8 reales). resealed of 1828 on 8 reales of the Peruvian Republic, Lima, 1828, assayer JM

Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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Republic of Chile

 Chile Republic : Over 1 Peso  1834. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Peru - Lima

Philippine Currency 1833. Columns resealed. Republic of Peru. 8 reales. Lima. 1833.  Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4) assayer M

Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin


Bolivian Republic - Potosi

Bolivian Republic. 8 soles. Potosí. 1833. LM. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4)

Assayer LM

Republic of Bolivia - Coins Countermarked Philippines

 

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Republic of Mexico - Guanajuato

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. Guanajuato. 1830. MJ. Researched by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1834-7). Assayer MJ

Mexican republic - Philippine Resealed Coin
Mexican Republic - Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Mexico - Durango

 Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. 1828. On an 8 reales of Durango of 1828. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines


See another resealed coins: Museu  Nacional D´Art de Catalunya

From 1810….

From 1810 the independentistas minted coins with types clearly differentiated from the Spaniards. As the American currencies of all securities circulated through the territory of the Philippines, the authorities realized the negative effect that these currencies could have there. Therefore, on October 13, 1828, the Captaincy General decreed that all coins should be resold with the following type:

On the obverse, the coat of arms of Spain with the legend; ENABLED BY KING N. S. D. FERN. Vii.

On the reverse, MANILA with the corresponding year that is almost always 1828.

see: Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

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Design of Coins - Assayers

Design was completed with a series of grooves engraved.  on the obverse die that in principle would erase any trace of Republican legend. This was not so, this first type is known as type I and the same were coined the year 1828 and the very rare of 1830. From the year 1829 we know a 8 escudos.

The reverse remained the same but from the obverse disappeared any legend or drawing leaving only the coat of arms. Dr. Pablo I. de Jesus de Manila has written a study on this series for which he has found about 400 different copies.

Clearing the Revolutionary - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Past On October 13, 1828, D. Mariano Ricafort, Captain General of the Philippine Islands, a division of the Viceroyalty of Mexico, issued an edict introducing a system of marking the weights and ounces of gold produced by the “insurrect provinces and revolutionary governments “Of the South American continent. Thus, infamous words, such as “Republic”, “Independent” and “Free”, were eliminated.

The heavy machinery of the mint smoothed the designs of the offending coins and attempted to eliminate any trace of the original coin by minting “Manila -1829” on one side and the Spanish coat of arms on the other, with the legend “Enabled by King N.S.D. Fernando VII “and surrounded both wedges by a wide sawed edge.

Medal Carlos III  1782 

José Gabriel Gil  Assayer

Carlos III of Spain - Philippine Resealed Coin
Carlos III of Spain Medal

Local authorities clung to the hope that with these methods they could prevent the spread of the announcement of “Union and Freedom” carried out nineteen years earlier by the rebel provinces of Río de la Plata.

  • “Union y Fuerza”, proclaimed ten years before By “Independence of Chile,” issued thirteen years earlier by Nueva Granada.
  • “Por la Virtud y la Justicia,” proclaimed a decade earlier by Peru,.
  • “Libre, Cresca, Fecundo” spread by the Central American Republic ( Guatemala ) only eight years ago , And the even more recent declaration of sovereignty of Bolivia “Libres por la Constitucion”.

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Circulation only in Phlipines

These coins did not circulate in Spain,  and they did until its replacement by a currency of the Kingdom that is shown below. The mint of Manila only coined throughout its history copper (between 1728 and 1835 and the year 1861). Because this weight, in quantity of six million pieces and with types equal to the hard ones of Puerto Rico of 1895, was carved in Madrid, and transported to the Philippines where it circulated until in 1904 it was withdrawn from circulation by the American authorities.

1861 - Inauguration of Manila's Mint House - Philipines

 1861 Isabel 2a Queen of Spain. Medal


With Alfonso XIII the last pieces destined to Ultramar are minted with the values ​​of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents of weight. In addition, the so-called “alfonsino weight” is emitted in two issues, one of 1897 destined to circulate in the Philippines and another one of 1895 to circulate in Puerto Rico.

The latter had a divider of 40 cents. The “alfonsino weight” is equivalent to the 5 pesetas  of the Metropolis. Alfonso XIII was king of Spain between 1886 and 1931, dying in the Roman exile in 1941.

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1868 Isabel 2a instead of II, Queen of Spain. Coins Countermarked Philippines

Coins Countermarked Philippines


Philipine Coin Manila 50 Cents 1880 - Alfonso XII 

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1880. Alfonso XII King of Spain. Coins Countermarked PhilippinesCoins Countermarked Philippines

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Alfonso XII  – Coined Manila 20 Cents 1885

Spain – Coined Manila 20 Cents in weight. 1885. SGV (Arturo Sandoval and Antonio García González, assayers, Remigio Vega Vega, judge of Balance). Coins Countermarked Philippines

Philippine Resealed Coin

GUAM - 1899 Philippine Resealed Coin

In the year 1899, to leave testimony of the occupation of the island, the admiral of the fleet American F. V. Green used a countermark on Philippine island weights that contained the word "GUAM" and the year of occupation

GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines
GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany

Five Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany Today

The History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheel cranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.

Crane  in the Port of Luneburg - Germany

The The History of the crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Port of Luneburg
History of Medieval  Cranes (Treadwheel Cranes) in Germany - Port of Luneburg

The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.

The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load

 

Anecdotes of the treadwheel crane

In 1840, the Treadwheel crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time. 

 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg

As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Luneburg

With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons. 


Ostricher - Germany

The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop's privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.

We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.

The  history of crane in Oestricher is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.

 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Ostricher
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Port of Ostricher

This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.

The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.

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Trier - Germany

Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.

The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.

History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Trier
History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - port of Trier

A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain. 

History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier
History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier

It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name "Alte Krahnen" in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.

 

Andernach - Germany

The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.

 

Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier- Andernach alter-krahnen
Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany - Trier- Andernach alter-krahnen

The Andernacher Krahnen was the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.

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History of The Crane

The history of cranes begins in Greece and ancient Rome. The ancient Romans created a wheel crane that was used until after the Middle Ages

The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).

The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.

The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called "Kaiserbaum" or "support tree". Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.


Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen - Germany

It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 ". And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler [...] of all Babylon.")

 

Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen - Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen - Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany

In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.

The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church's hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.

As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.

Maybe it interests you too: Medieval Treadwheel Crane in England– Beverley Minster

 References and Bibliography

      1. Friends of Beverley Minster
      2. Legende van de Maneblussers
      3. National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk 
      4. Alter Kran (Lüneburg)
      5. Abbaye du Mont-Saint-Michel - Cage à écureuil
      6. Historic England Org.- The Harwich Treadwheel Crane
      7. Medieval Treadwheels: Artists' Views of Building Constructions -  The Johns Hopkins University Press
      8. Surrey Industrial Hiistory Group - Guilford
      9. Denkmalgesellschaft Bingen - Oestricher Kran
      10. The privatisation of the Brunswick State Railways in 1869-70
      11. George Forrester and Company
      12. Tower of Cathedral - Nördlingen 
      13. Ingenieria de Puertos en la Roma Clasica
      14. Medios de elevación de materiales en la construcción medieval
      15. Marco Vitruvio Polión
      16. De Architectura
      17. St. Georg (Nördlingen)

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The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France)

Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.

 

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Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

 

 Acropolis - Atenas -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis - Atenas - Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

 

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.

They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

 

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

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Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

 

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) -

Tourism in the Roman Empire

During Roman Empire, the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

A Bit of Roman History

Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Ancient Tourism
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France)

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

Temple of Juno- Nimes France
Temple of Juno- Nimes France

All Roads Lead to Rome

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea

Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Only for Military Use

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism.

Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julius Caesar, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The Roman Empire Roads

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy), Siracuse ( Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).

A Denarius per Mile

Besides being dangerous, traveling in ancient Rome was also very expensive, especially by Land. Only those who had good reasons to travel traveled, be they economic or, more often, military. A long overland carriage ride could cost on the order of a denarius per mile. According to the Bible, a denarius was the daily salary of a worker, so one can get used to the idea of the enormous economic effort involved in moving around the Empire.


Stones on The Roads

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.

Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia and Mausoleum of Glanum - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)

The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies

SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS
--SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS--
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents

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Hound Outward - Lifeguard For Dogs
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Gaius Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping

Julius Caesar, in 75 B.C. He had had to flee from Rome since he was at odds with the Roman dictator Sila. Banished to the Aegean Islands to avoid the assassins of Sila, he devoted himself to study and prepare for when he returned to Rome. It was just on a trip to study at the Oratory and Eloquence Academy of Molon of Rodas was tackled by sackcloth pirates - (Cilicia, on the south coast of present-day Turkey)

The pirates valued the rescue to be requested by the crew in a total of 20 talents. Julius Caesar to the astonishment of the pirates, he told them to ask for nothing more and nothing less than 50 talents for his life. Obviously the pirates had nothing to object to.

A talent corresponded to the weight of a cubic foot of water, which in ancient Rome amounted to 75 Pounds / 1200 oz. If we say that gold, today, is U$S 1400 per Oz, Total are U$S 1,680,000 per tatent

Gaius Julius Caesar was transferred to the island of Farmacusa (off the coast of Halicarnassus), where he stayed, together with a friend and two servants held by the pirates. The rest of the crew was sent to seek rescue. It was 38 days before the envoys came with the money, in which the chroniclers (Plutarch, especially) tells that Julius Caesar, rather than being imprisoned, lived like a king

He dedicated himself to sports, writing poetry, studying and writing speeches - which forced his kidnappers to listen - and even silenced the pirates when they wouldn't let him sleep.

During his captivity, Julius Caesar threated that when he was released, he would capture them, recover the money and crucify them. Obviously, the pirates didn't take it too seriously. Once the rescue was obtained Julio César was released

Venus Callipyge: The Roman Statue of the Beautiful Buttocks
Venus Callipyge: The Roman Statue of the Beautiful Buttocks

Once released he went to Pergamum, where he got 500 soldiers and 4 ships, returning to Farmacusa and catching the pirates in full celebration for their loot, capturing them without too much trouble. The 350 pirates were taken to Pergamum again. There, Julius Caesar sent everyone to 30, who were crucified as he had promised. of course, as a humanitarian detail made them slaughter before crucifying them.

In this way, Julius Caesar  apart from creating a reputation that did not leave him until Bruto murdered him many years later, he managed to keep the 50 rescue talents. 

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Tourism: Only the Upper Class

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. 
The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain). Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.

Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler's name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

 

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

Pompeii History
Pompeii History of Tourism

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those country places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today's day

Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater of Nimes (France)

Backpacks

Ship to Philippines

Backpacks on Amazon 2021
Backpacks on Amazon 2021

My Darling, and if We Visit Esparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

 

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater in Sparta -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

 

 

The Ritual

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

 

 

Rome amphitheater. Coliseum - History of Tourism
Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  - History of Tourism 

 


US History of Tourism: First Coast to Coast Flight 1929 Part I

US History of Tourism - The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT -  Ford Tri-Motor

US History of Tourism: Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT

US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA.  

The Transcontinental Air Transport airline was like "The Lindbergh Line" and the idea began in the months after the 1927 transatlantic flight of Charles Lindbergh. The main sponsors of this commercial airline were:

STOKES COLLECTION 1934 American Classics / 16.5" x 11" . Ford Trimotor - Amazon.com Poster Vintage
Stokes Collection 1934 American Classics / 16.5" x 11" . Ford Trimotor - Amazon.com Poster Vintage

  • Charles Lindbergh,
  • Harold Bixby,
  • Henry Breckinridge,
  • Harry Knight
  • Commander William Robertson

They set out to unite the coasts of the Atlantic and the Pacific, between the cities of New York and Los Angeles

First Coast to Coast Flight 1929 Map - US History of Tourism:

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Vintage poster Ads
Vintage poster Ads

TWA Ads & Prints on Amazon

TAT investors were: The Curtiss companies, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation, the Atchison Railroad, Topeka and Santa Fe plus five investment banks. In the spring of 1928, the group formed Transcontinental Air Transport, Inc., with Clement Melville Keys (Curtiss) as chairman and a board of directors composed of representatives of major investors.

Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Ford 5-AT Tri-Motor
History of Tourism: Ford Tri-Motor  5 AT  - Pic: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (1)

Charles Lindbergh Chairman of TAT Technical Committee

Charles Lindbergh became Chairman of the TAT Technical Committee. The Lindbergh Technical team designed the air route to follow. They chose 10 cities spaced between the coasts: Columbus, Ohio; Indianapolis, Ind .; St. Louis, Mo .; Kansas City, Kan .; Wichita, Kan .; Waynoka, Okla .; Clovis, NM; Albuquerque, NM; Winslow, Ariz .; and Glendale, California.

Transcontinental Air Transport bought or rented sites for airports. Pilots and mechanics were also hired, coordinated airline and rail schedules. They also directed the construction of runways, airport terminals and weather stations.

TAT tested the schedules of the stops between June 20 and July 6, 1929. Several pracytical trips and training with teams and personnel were made. Before the first client traveled, almost 50,000 test miles were recorded. Also transported 261 passengers through the different sections of the TAT route to make sure everything was ready.

US History of Tourism: Ford Trimotor 5-AT

The plane chosen by Lindbergh was the Ford TriMotor. According to Lindbergh, the Ford had more power and better maintenance than any other airplane. The Ford Tri-Motor was popularly dubbed the "Tin Goose". Its corrugated metal fuselage looked like a tin washboard, and his body seemed to crawl on the ground like the belly of a goose.

Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center 
Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902 (7) - Book Fly

Having three engines made flying on that plane safer than on other planes of that time. If one or maybe two engines stop running in flight, the TriMotor could land safely with only one of the two engines. The plane's cabin could accommodate a maximum of 10 passengers. The plane had been built to transport more people but Transcontinental Air Transport dismantled six seats to leave the place for a kitchen.

A very narrow corridor ran through the center of the passenger cabin. Next to each seat was a window covered with velvet curtains. Each passenger had their own reading lamp and also an electric lighter with an ashtray. The seats were adjustable to three positions and resembled more common splinters than the current seats of an airplane. The Ford TriMotor had a top speed of 110 miles per hour.

First Coast to Coast Flight: Inauguration Day in NYC 

 On July 7, 1929, transcontinental travel began. He initially offered a 48-hour coast-to-coast travel (night trains and day planes on several flights). The first Passengers had to board, first, a night train to take them to the airport in Columbus, Ohio (today is John Glenn International Airport), 850 miles away.

Ford Tri-Motor "City of New York" at hall NYC Pennsylvania station, - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight
Ford Tri-Motor "City of New York" at hall NYC Pennsylvania station, - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight 1929

At the NYC Pennsylvania station, a Ford Tri-Motor called City of New York was in the hall. He was taken for the occasion and was Christening by Amelia Earhart. After the speeches, passengers boarded The Airway Limited on Platform 15, and the train departed to Columbus  at 6:05 pm

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First Day:  New York to Waynoka

Because The city's Union Station was located in the city center, TAT built its own train station and terminal at the Columbus airport. Thus, the transfer from train to plane was faster and more comfortable for passengers.  It was a cloudy day with light rain that fell in Columbus on July 8, 1929. Passengers who arrived at the new Columbus Penn train station walked down a gangway to the Ford Tri-Motors aircraft.

The plan was for two Tri-Motors to take off at the same time and move together across the continent. The Ford Tri-Motor chosen were the so-called City of Columbus and the City of Wichita. 

Pennsylvania Railroad - Coast to Coast 48 hs
Pennsylvania Railroad - Coast to Coast 48 hs

The list of passengers who boarded that day the Ford Tri-Motor aircraft were (2)

The passengers on the City of Columbus Plane:

  • Colonel Edgar S. Correll (President, Stutz Motor Company, IN)
  • Paul Henderson. Jr. (Colonel Henderson's son)
  • Stay Brainerd (Associated Newspapers. NYC)
  • S.W. Higgins (Dennison Manufacturing Company, MA)
  • U. Grant Border (U.S. Border & Sons. NYC)
  • J.W. Brennan, (Central Traffic Manager. TAT)
  • Daniel M. Shafer (Chief of Passenger Transportation. Pennsylvania Railroad)
  • Albert A Garthwaite. (Vice President. Lee Tire Company. PA)

The passengers on the City of Wichita Plane  :

  • Charles Tice (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
  • Carl Larsen (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
  • William Chaplin (Associated Press. NYC)
  • Miss M.A. Salomon (Chamber of Commerce. Brooklyn. NY)
  • Mn. John T. Litch (Boston. MA)
  • E.E. Greiner (Springfield. OH) William James Bryant (Nation's Business. D.C.)
  • Mn. George P. Putnam (NYC) Mn. F.C. Kenney (Indianapolis. IN)

Carl Larsen and Charles, members of Fox Movietone, filmed the historic TAT inaugural trip across the United States. The film still exists and it's very interesting to view (here) this documented trip across the continent. 

After the two Ford Tri-Motor departed, Mr. T.B. Clement, the General Traffic Manager of Transcontinental Air Transport , hosted a breakfast in the TAT hangar. Important guests that attended the start of the inaugural flights and the celebration breakfast included

  • Henry Ford. ( Chairman of Ford Motor Company)
  • Eckel Ford (Henry Ford's  son);
  • William B. Mayo (Chief Engineer of Ford Motor Company);
  • Harvey Firestone (Firestone Tire Company).

Columbus Airport

Early in the morning , at the Columbus Airport (3), the passengers board a Ford Trimotor plane and fly to Waynoka - Oklahoma. The plane had to stop 4 times to refuel before arriving in Oklahoma. There they boarded another night train on the Santa Fe Railroad for a trip to Clovis, New Mexico. On the train they spent the night and arrived at the next airport.

Columbus Airport - Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism - indbergh Line
Columbus Airport - Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism - Lindbergh Line

Around noon, the TAT flight stops in St. Louis, where pilots who had flown from Columbus were replaced by a new flight crew. TAT limited the flight time of its pilots to no more than five hours in the air in a single day. A TAT pilot earned more than $ 12,000 a year, more than double the salaries that most pilots earned at that time.

St. Louis to Kansas City: Lunch on Board

In the stage of St. Louis to Kansas City the passengers were served lunch. Ford trimotor stabilized, the service on board served some aluminum trays with napkin and tablecloth. The food was chicken, cheese and egg salad sandwiches, a pickle and salt. A piece of cake, an apple and a banana were also served. To accompany the meals the option was milk or coffee.

In Kansas City there was another technical stop, where any nervous passenger had the option of making a train connection. From Kansas City, the air route followed the Santa Fe rail route to the next stop in Wichita. Leaving Wichita, the trip to Waynoka was only 117 flight miles.

Samsonite Luggage Amazon

Samsonite Luggage
Samsonite Luggage

Landing in Waynoka

At Landing in Waynoka, TAT passengers are driven by car to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe train station. There at dinner will be the Harvey House restaurant. The food was five stars;

  • Blue knitted oysters
  • Duck Salmi,
  • Prairie Chicken with Redcurrant Jam
  • Pickled lamb tongue.

At 8 pm, TAT service personnel accompanied passengers to a special railroad car (The Missionary) bound for Clovis. The train left Waynoka at 11 p.m. through western Oklahoma and northern Texas. He stopped in the cities of Woodward, Shattuck, Canadian, Miami and Amarillo. In Clovis, passengers had breakfast  in other  Harvey House, when they arrived at the City

Shedules Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight -
Shedules Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism

Second Day: Clovis to Los Angeles

First Coast to Coast Flight: From the Clovis train station, a car drove passengers to the Clovis terminal "Portair" five miles west of the city. The departure of the plane was scheduled for 8:10 AM. The plane took off and reached the height of 8,000 feet. Passengers expect a trip with three stopovers to refuel before reaching their final destination. The name of  Ford Tri-Motor is “City of Wichita,”

Albuquerque was the first stop on the second day of flight. After the stopover, a light lunch was served and the service was withdrawn before arriving at the Continental Division. The most dangerous part of the trip, the flight from Albuquerque to Kingman through Winslow, was also the most picturesque.

In the late afternoon, the TAT Ford Tri-Motor approaches through the Cajon Pass between the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains in California. Approaching Glendale Airport, their final destination, the plane slid over Pasadena, north of Los Angeles. Also about Hollywood and movie studios.

 

Part II :Inauguration Day in Los Angeles  - Two Air Crash in Five Months  -  TAT & Western Air Express - Ford Tri-Motor Today

 

Sources First Coast to Coast Flight 

  1. The Smithsonian Air & Space
  2. Flying In lingbergh Line - Robert F kirk 
  3. The Building of an Airport : Port Columbus Robert F kirk 
  4. Journal American Aviation Historical Society
  5. The Smithsonian  Ford Plane
  6. Liberty aviation museum.org
  7. EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902
  8. Palm Springs Air Museum
  9. Air Museum Guide

The Building of an Airport: Port Columbus: “America’s Greatest Air Harbor” 1929 de [Kirk, Robert F.]

Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: (Transcontinental Air Transport’S Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]
Ford Tri-Motor - Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: ( Transcontinental Air Transport   Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Tags:  The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT - US History of Tourism - Ford Tri-Motor - Charles Lindbergh - Amelia Earhart - City of Los Angeles - City of Wichita - City of New York

 

Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Strasbourg’s Cathedral

Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Cathedral of Strasbourg

We visited the Cathedral of Strasbourg 

The Cathedral of Strasbourg was the first cathedral of Germany (or Kingdom of Germania). Until the arrival of Louis XIV in 1681 and his minister of the war, the Marquess of Louvois that camped in the environs of Strasbourg and forced their submission to the French monarchy the 30 of September of 1681.

Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths

The Cathedral was delivered by the same Luis XIV The head of the Catholic bishopric of Strasbourg, Egon de Furstenberg. Absent from the city for almost 150 years, that way ended the period as an independent city.

The Cathedral

Designed in Gothic style, it was built during the second half of the 13th century. Although originally planned as a Romanesque structure, in 1053 today there is only the crypt and the floor of that style. At the end of the main chapel, the decision was taken to construct the nave in the Gothic style (1250).

The walls were open with Gothic stained glass but the interior remained predominantly Romanesque. The main colonnades were Romanic style. And they also supported the arches. They were very separate. The proportions of the ship are 1: 2.5.

Cathedral of Strasbourg
Cathedral of Strasbourg

Medieval Treadwheel Crane - Cathedral Strasbourg 

It is accessed by the side of the Cathedral, to a door that leads to a spiral staircase stone, without breaks. At the end of it before accessing the terrace on the left side you can see the Medieval Treadwheel Crane.

Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths

The same one that was used in the construction of the Cathedral. And it's still there. It was customary to leave the cranes in their original location after completion of the work, for maintenance or repair.

Medieval Treadwheel Crane Carpenters

The Medieval treadwheel crane Cathedral of Strasbourg is made of wood, manufactured by the carpenters. Like carvers, carpenters were a relatively privileged category of craftsmen. Considered for a long time the absolute masters of construction, its prestige began to decline as early as the 11th century with the generalization of stone vaults, which concealed from view its wooden structures.

Related post: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Since then, both guilds have fought, sometimes with violence, the primacy in the construction works. But they had to remain closely linked because they had no choice but to depend on one another.

The Carpenters Masters

The master carpenter directed all the works in wood, that were developed from the beginning to the end of the work. He was a very skilled technician, who could discuss with the architect the timber structures to be lifted, both permanent and temporary.

The rigging, ladders and scaffolding that would be used by masons, sculptors and glaziers to work at different heights, inside and outside the building were all made of wood.

AstronomicClock of Cathedral of Strasbourg
AstronomicClock of Medieval Cathedral of Strasbourg

They also built support machinery to lift stones and other materials. Wheel cranes, also called spinning "squirrels" and three-up raisers, are inside these machines.

The Navy Carpenters of The Crane

Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg
Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg

The treadwheel crane was a piece that required a great technical skill. Perfect assemblies and combinations of forces show their relationship with naval carpentry. In regions with a strong maritime tradition, carpentry teachers shared the construction of cathedrals with work in the shipyards building ships. Both civilian and military.

The main application was the port cranes. Imitations can now be observed in different parts of Europe.

CONCLUSIONS

As can be seen in the photos this treadwheel crane is for two operators. While the word operators today is used to operate a mechanical crane, here is another thing. Two people, one on each side walk in synchronized form to lift a weight, to the control of a master of crane.

Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths
Medieval Treadwheel Crane in the Cathedral of strasbourg Walking paths

We have no idea of ​​the capacity of this particular crane, but it can be said that approximately would be for about 1500 to 3000 lb, taking into account the external diameter of the wheel. This would be about  4.5 yards. For those who visit the cathedral of Strasbourg, before accessing the terrace, you can appreciate this legacy artifact of other times.