The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Greece  -  Rome  -  Roman Roads - Sparta  - Justice in Greece  - Pont du Gard

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism

This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary. History of Classical Tourism in ancient times.

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary.
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Classical Tourism

Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.How was the tourism in ancient time?

How was the tourism in ancient time?

Tourism and travel in ancient times, short or long distances was an important and dangerous business. It required careful planning.
Most of the trips were made for religious reasons, war, diplomacy, health reasons or training in schools of scholars. They also go to festivals such as the Olympic Games or the Dionysian Games,

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Ancient Age Tourism: Greece

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held, which consisted of athletic competitions in honor of the Gods of Olympus. Artistic and athletic offerings were offered as a gift. Many times sacrifices and prayers were also performed in honor of some god in particular.

Acropolis - Atenas - Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Acropolis - Atenas - Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Although lesser known, the Pitios, Ismios and Nemeos festivals were also celebrated. These celebrations mobilized a large number of people, who of course, needed transportation and roads to travel. The roads system was very similar to that of the Persians and they usually traveled on foot or by donkey. 

Greece had a network of inns that only offered a bed for the night. They did not have dining rooms or bathrooms

It is also known that in each city public baths were built, open to everyone, where tourists of that time had to bring their own towels. They took off their clothes and kept them in special lockers, and then a slave took care of the hygiene with jars of hot and cold water.

Gymnasium in Ancient Greek
Gymnasium in Ancient Greek

 

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Travelling in Ancient Times: Acropolis & Pyramids

Pilgrimages to the different temples of Greece and to the oracles were very common. the most important one was that of Apollo in Delphi and among the most visited sanctuaries is the one of Esculapio, god of medicine.

The Greek lands also offered medicinal baths. Also seaside resorts, theater festivals and the opportunity to see monuments such as the Acropolis of Athens. The Acropolis are from the fifth century BC became one of the most visited sites in the world ancient along with the pyramids of Egypt. These were two of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Greeks visited other regions, such as Egypt. In most cases these visits were for military or trade matters, although it is known that the pyramids attracted many tourists.

 

Roman Theater - Orange - France Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France - Travelling in Ancient Times

Proxenos

In ancient Greece there were offices called proxenos. Here foreigners were received (it is remembered that foreigners did not have any kind of rights because of their status as non-citizens). It was for people who had problems to return to their city or country.

They could also need lodging, or even a loan to continue their trip. Many times the managers of these almost consular offices, arranged with merchants passages in boat where the tourists could take their own servants, offering them food and drink.

 

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

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Traveling in ancient times: Slaves & Tourism

In classical Greece free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious or to attend the Olympic games was scarce.

 

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) -

What was it like to travel in the Roman Empire?

During Roman Empire, the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins).
These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.

Travel in Ancient Rome: A Bit of Roman History

Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Travel in Ancient Rome
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Travel in Ancient Rome

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima.
The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

Temple of Juno- Nimes France
Temple of Juno- Nimes France - Travel in Ancient Rome

What Places did Tourism go to in Ancient Rome?

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea

Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome Map by Sasha Trubetskoy

The Roads in Ancient Rome Were for Military Use?

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism. Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julius Caesar, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line
Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

How Were the Roads in Ancient Rome?

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy), Siracuse ( Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).

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How Much it Cost Per Mile to Travel in the Roman Empire?

Travel in Ancient Rome: Besides being dangerous, traveling in ancient Rome was also very expensive, especially by Land. Only those who had good reasons to travel traveled, be they economic or, more often, military. A long overland carriage ride could cost on the order of a denarius per mile. According to the Bible, a denarius was the daily salary of a worker, so one can get used to the idea of the enormous economic effort involved in moving around the Empire.

Pont du Gard - France

The Pont du Gard, - France - The Roman aqueduct poster on Amazon - Traveling in Ancient Times
The Pont du Gard, - France - The Roman aqueduct poster on Amazon - Traveling in Ancient Times

 

Why Were There Stones on the Side of the Roads in the Roman Empire?

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.

Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia and Mausoleum of Glanum - Saint Remy de Provence - (France) - Traveling in Ancient Times

The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies

SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS
--SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS--
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents

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Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping

Julius Caesar, in 75 B.C. He had had to flee from Rome since he was at odds with the Roman dictator Sila. Banished to the Aegean Islands to avoid the assassins of Sila, he devoted himself to study and prepare for when he returned to Rome. It was just on a trip to study at the Oratory and Eloquence Academy of Molon of Rodas was tackled by sackcloth pirates - (Cilicia, on the south coast of present-day Turkey)

The pirates valued the rescue to be requested by the crew in a total of 20 talents. Julius Caesar to the astonishment of the pirates, he told them to ask for nothing more and nothing less than 50 talents for his life. Obviously the pirates had nothing to object to.

A talent corresponded to the weight of a cubic foot of water, which in ancient Rome amounted to 75 Pounds / 1200 oz. If we say that gold, today, is U$S 1400 per Oz, Total are U$S 1,680,000 per tatent

Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping
Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping

Gaius Julius Caesar was transferred to the island of Farmacusa (off the coast of Halicarnassus), where he stayed, together with a friend and two servants held by the pirates. The rest of the crew was sent to seek rescue. It was 38 days before the envoys came with the money, in which the chroniclers (Plutarch, especially) tells that Julius Caesar, rather than being imprisoned, lived like a king

He dedicated himself to sports, writing poetry, studying and writing speeches - which forced his kidnappers to listen - and even silenced the pirates when they wouldn't let him sleep.

During his captivity, Julius Caesar threated that when he was released, he would capture them, recover the money and crucify them. Obviously, the pirates didn't take it too seriously. Once the rescue was obtained Julio César was released

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Venus Callipyge: The Roman Statue of the Beautiful Buttocks - Traveling in Ancient Times

Once released he went to Pergamum, where he got 500 soldiers and 4 ships, returning to Farmacusa and catching the pirates in full celebration for their loot, capturing them without too much trouble. The 350 pirates were taken to Pergamum again. There, Julius Caesar sent everyone to 30, who were crucified as he had promised. of course, as a humanitarian detail made them slaughter before crucifying them.

In this way, Julius Caesar  apart from creating a reputation that did not leave him until Bruto murdered him many years later, he managed to keep the 50 rescue talents. 

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 Only the rich made tourism in the Roman Empire?

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain).
Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.

Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Travel in Ancient Rome: Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler's name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

 

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) -Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

 

Travel in Ancient Rome & Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

Pompeii History
Pompeii History of Tourism - Travel in Ancient Rome

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those country places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today's day

Travel in Ancient Rome: Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater of Nimes (France) Travel in Ancient Rome

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My Darling, and if We Visit Sparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

 

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Travel in Ancient Rome: Amphitheater in Sparta

 

 

The Ritual

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  - History of Tourism 
Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  - History of Tourism

The Judicial System of the Greeks

Ancient Athens developed a remarkable judicial system. The trials used ordinary citizens as jurors. On trial days, those who wanted to be part of the jury appeared in court, where a sophisticated selection process was developed.

Citizens inserted their pinakion (a bronze or wooden plaque that served as an identity document) into a slot in a large stone block called a kleroterion.

Kleros

Then an official would roll black and white icosahedron-shaped dice (20 sides) down a tube attached vertically to one side of the kleroterion. The dice were accumulated at the bottom and were released one by one, in the random order in which they fell. Candidates hit by a black die went home. Candidates with a blank die went to the jury (Boegehold 1995). In this way, the kleroterion was a drawing machine that guaranteed transparency in the selection of the jury.

25 centuries ago, Athenians discovered that a justice system could function among peers as long as three conditions were met:

  • The jury had to be voluntary;
  • The jury had to be paid;
  • The selection of jurors had to be done by lottery (kleros).

 


 

 

 

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Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines 

A collaboration of Marty Martinez

The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.

From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.

1866

2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God Philippine Resealed Coin

As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route.  Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.

Circulated coins,  were also circulated after 1828, which for different reasons, arrived on the island. It should be noted that the Spanish monetary system at that time was adopted by all American countries (including the United States and Canada). Also some countries of Africa, and it meant what today is the dollar-USA monetary system. Denominations of the currencies of the new countries were also made in Reals.

Peruvian Republic - Lima

Coins Resealed. by Fernando VII for its circulation in Manila (8 reales). resealed of 1828 on 8 reales of the Peruvian Republic, Lima, 1828, assayer JM

Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Republic of Chile

 Chile Republic : Over 1 Peso  1834. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Peru - Lima

Philippine Currency 1833. Columns resealed. Republic of Peru. 8 reales. Lima. 1833.  Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4) assayer M

Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin


Bolivian Republic - Potosi

Bolivian Republic. 8 soles. Potosí. 1833. LM. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4)

Assayer LM

Republic of Bolivia - Coins Countermarked Philippines

 

Republic of Mexico - Guanajuato

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. Guanajuato. 1830. MJ. Researched by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1834-7). Assayer MJ

Mexican republic - Philippine Resealed Coin
Mexican Republic - Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Mexico - Durango

 Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. 1828. On an 8 reales of Durango of 1828. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Mexico Durando - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines


See another resealed coins: Museu  Nacional D´Art de Catalunya

From 1810….

From 1810 the independentistas minted coins with types clearly differentiated from the Spaniards. As the American currencies of all securities circulated through the territory of the Philippines, the authorities realized the negative effect that these currencies could have there. Therefore, on October 13, 1828, the Captaincy General decreed that all coins should be resold with the following type:

On the obverse, the coat of arms of Spain with the legend; ENABLED BY KING N. S. D. FERN. Vii.

On the reverse, MANILA with the corresponding year that is almost always 1828.

see: Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

Design of Coins - Assayers

Design was completed with a series of grooves engraved.  on the obverse die that in principle would erase any trace of Republican legend. This was not so, this first type is known as type I and the same were coined the year 1828 and the very rare of 1830. From the year 1829 we know a 8 escudos.

The reverse remained the same but from the obverse disappeared any legend or drawing leaving only the coat of arms. Dr. Pablo I. de Jesus de Manila has written a study on this series for which he has found about 400 different copies.

Clearing the Revolutionary - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Past On October 13, 1828, D. Mariano Ricafort, Captain General of the Philippine Islands, a division of the Viceroyalty of Mexico, issued an edict introducing a system of marking the weights and ounces of gold produced by the “insurrect provinces and revolutionary governments “Of the South American continent. Thus, infamous words, such as “Republic”, “Independent” and “Free”, were eliminated.

The heavy machinery of the mint smoothed the designs of the offending coins and attempted to eliminate any trace of the original coin by minting “Manila -1829” on one side and the Spanish coat of arms on the other, with the legend “Enabled by King N.S.D. Fernando VII “and surrounded both wedges by a wide sawed edge.

Medal Carlos III  1782 

José Gabriel Gil  Assayer

Carlos III of Spain - Philippine Resealed Coin
Carlos III of Spain Medal

Local authorities clung to the hope that with these methods they could prevent the spread of the announcement of “Union and Freedom” carried out nineteen years earlier by the rebel provinces of Río de la Plata.

  • “Union y Fuerza”, proclaimed ten years before By “Independence of Chile,” issued thirteen years earlier by Nueva Granada.
  • “Por la Virtud y la Justicia,” proclaimed a decade earlier by Peru,.
  • “Libre, Cresca, Fecundo” spread by the Central American Republic ( Guatemala ) only eight years ago , And the even more recent declaration of sovereignty of Bolivia “Libres por la Constitucion”.

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Circulation only in Phlipines

These coins did not circulate in Spain,  and they did until its replacement by a currency of the Kingdom that is shown below. The mint of Manila only coined throughout its history copper (between 1728 and 1835 and the year 1861). Because this weight, in quantity of six million pieces and with types equal to the hard ones of Puerto Rico of 1895, was carved in Madrid, and transported to the Philippines where it circulated until in 1904 it was withdrawn from circulation by the American authorities.

1861 - Inauguration of Manila's Mint House - Philipines

 1861 Isabel 2a Queen of Spain. Medal


With Alfonso XIII the last pieces destined to Ultramar are minted with the values ​​of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents of weight. In addition, the so-called “alfonsino weight” is emitted in two issues, one of 1897 destined to circulate in the Philippines and another one of 1895 to circulate in Puerto Rico.

The latter had a divider of 40 cents. The “alfonsino weight” is equivalent to the 5 pesetas  of the Metropolis. Alfonso XIII was king of Spain between 1886 and 1931, dying in the Roman exile in 1941.

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1868 Isabel 2a instead of II, Queen of Spain. Coins Countermarked Philippines

Coins Countermarked Philippines


Philipine Coin Manila 50 Cents 1880 - Alfonso XII 

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1880. Alfonso XII King of Spain. Coins Countermarked PhilippinesCoins Countermarked Philippines

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Alfonso XII  – Coined Manila 20 Cents 1885

Spain – Coined Manila 20 Cents in weight. 1885. SGV (Arturo Sandoval and Antonio García González, assayers, Remigio Vega Vega, judge of Balance). Coins Countermarked Philippines

Philippine Resealed Coin

GUAM - 1899 Philippine Resealed Coin

In the year 1899, to leave testimony of the occupation of the island, the admiral of the fleet American F. V. Green used a countermark on Philippine island weights that contained the word "GUAM" and the year of occupation

GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines
GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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