Treadwheel on Salisbury Cathedral is from the 13th century (1220-1320.) And has the tallest tower in the UK, 123 meters (404 feet). The wheel crane is the original one used in construction. The same as the existing scaffolding on the spire tower. As the tower approached completion, the removal of the wheel crane was considered. This was quite common, as the crane can be dismantled and reused on another site. It also adds weight to the structure. But it turns out that because the crane was leaning, so much wooden shoring was added to it that it prevented its total removal. It was also partially dismantled and in its original location under the roof.
TreadWheel Crane Details
In the 18th century lightning damaged the tower, so the wheel crane is reassembled for repair work. So it remained until today. They say the crane is empty (no rope or load) so well balanced that it can be moved with just one finger. The axis, in the 18th century was reinforced (8), adding four additional minor axes. Planks were placed on the inside circumference of the Wheel, providing a surface for the crane operators.
The 3.3 meter (10 feet 10.5 inch) diameter of the wheel makes walking inside the wheel hoist torture for the operator. Even for a person of short stature. You had to walk in a stooped position, the only way to operate the crane. According to the Cathedralstaff, although it is not used, the wheel crane is in operating condition
Curiosities of the CathedralThe cathedral remains undamaged to this day. And it is because it was one of the few cathedrals, in the south of England, not to be attacked by the Luftwaffe. This was during the Battle of Britain in WWII. As the story goes, the residents of Salisburys during the war were astonished because in the areas adjacent to the cathedral, far fewer bombs fell than in the rest of the city.
They were probably convinced that the cathedral should protect them. It turns out that, after the war, a Luftwaffe officer reported that all pilots received strict instructions never to bombard the cathedral, as its spire was so tall and unique that it served as a perfect landmark for the aircraft they sought. orientation. The cathedral also has the oldest and best-preserved copy of the Magna Carta. This document apparently can be seen but not photographed.
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Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Cathedral of Strasbourg
We visited the Cathedral of Strasbourg
The Cathedral of Strasbourg was the first cathedral of Germany (or Kingdom of Germania). Until the arrival of Louis XIV in 1681 and his minister of the war, the Marquess of Louvois that camped in the environs of Strasbourg and forced their submission to the French monarchy the 30 of September of 1681.
The Cathedral was delivered by the same Luis XIV The head of the Catholic bishopric of Strasbourg, Egon de Furstenberg. Absent from the city for almost 150 years, that way ended the period as an independent city.
Designed in Gothic style, it was built during the second half of the 13th century. Although originally planned as a Romanesque structure, in 1053 today there is only the crypt and the floor of that style. At the end of the main chapel, the decision was taken to construct the nave in the Gothic style (1250).
The walls were open with Gothic stained glass but the interior remained predominantly Romanesque. The main colonnades were Romanic style. And they also supported the arches. They were very separate. The proportions of the ship are 1: 2.5.
Medieval Treadwheel Crane - Cathedral Strasbourg
It is accessed by the side of the Cathedral, to a door that leads to a spiral staircase stone, without breaks. At the end of it before accessing the terrace on the left side you can see the Medieval Treadwheel Crane.
The same one that was used in the construction of the Cathedral. And it's still there. It was customary to leave the cranes in their original location after completion of the work, for maintenance or repair.
Medieval Treadwheel Crane Carpenters
The Medieval treadwheel crane Cathedral of Strasbourg is made of wood, manufactured by the carpenters. Like carvers, carpenters were a relatively privileged category of craftsmen. Considered for a long time the absolute masters of construction, its prestige began to decline as early as the 11th century with the generalization of stone vaults, which concealed from view its wooden structures.
Since then, both guilds have fought, sometimes with violence, the primacy in the construction works. But they had to remain closely linked because they had no choice but to depend on one another.
The Carpenters Masters
The master carpenter directed all the works in wood, that were developed from the beginning to the end of the work. He was a very skilled technician, who could discuss with the architect the timber structures to be lifted, both permanent and temporary.
The rigging, ladders and scaffolding that would be used by masons, sculptors and glaziers to work at different heights, inside and outside the building were all made of wood.
They also built support machinery to lift stones and other materials. Wheel cranes, also called spinning "squirrels" and three-up raisers, are inside these machines.
The Navy Carpenters of The Crane
The treadwheel crane was a piece that required a great technical skill. Perfect assemblies and combinations of forces show their relationship with naval carpentry. In regions with a strong maritime tradition, carpentry teachers shared the construction of cathedrals with work in the shipyards building ships. Both civilian and military.
The main application was the port cranes. Imitations can now be observed in different parts of Europe.
As can be seen in the photos this treadwheel crane is for two operators. While the word operators today is used to operate a mechanical crane, here is another thing. Two people, one on each side walk in synchronized form to lift a weight, to the control of a master of crane.
We have no idea of the capacity of this particular crane, but it can be said that approximately would be for about 1500 to 3000 lb, taking into account the external diameter of the wheel. This would be about 4.5 yards. For those who visit the cathedral of Strasbourg, before accessing the terrace, you can appreciate this legacy artifact of other times.
The History of Medieval Treadwheel Cranes in Germany: The treadwheel cranes were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist. Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. These are the five medieval treadmill cranes existing today in Germany. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Medieval Crane in the Port of Luneburg - Germany
The The History of the crane in the old port of Ilmenau in Lüneburg (4) was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1330. Considered in its time one of the most efficient cranes in northern Germany, it is 15 meters high and could hoist 9 tons.
The Medieval Treadwheel Crane was used mainly for the transport of salt and salting herring from department stores. Also firewood and merchandise. The crane was used until 1860 and the current state is operable but not used.
The plant of the crane house is circular and has a diameter of eight meters and the lifting arm is nine meters. The power plant consists of two wheels of 5 meters in diameter. Four blocks of sandstone were used as counterweight to the load
In 1840, the Treadwheel Medieval Crane lifted its heaviest load on land: a steam locomotive for the Ducal Braunschweig State Railway. The locomotive was manufactured by George Forrester & Company (11) in England and transported by water to Germany. The weight of the locomotive was estimated around 9 tons. To operate the wheel crane, 38 men were needed at that time.
As a load test, before the locomotive, a package with 80 railway tracks weighing about 9.2 tons (20,300 pounds) was made. The crane was rebuilt in the summer of 1797 by Master Carpenter GP Hintze as it appears on the plate.
With the construction of the Hamburg-Hannover railway line (12), which arrived in Lüneburg in 1847, the transport of goods to and from Lüneburg went quickly from the waterway to the railways. As a result, the port and, therefore, also the crane quickly lost importance. In 1860, the treadwheel crane stopped working for economic reasons.
Medieval Crane: Ostricher - Germany
The construction and operation of a treadwheel crane in Germany, was until the nineteenth century absolutely, an archbishop's privilege in this area. Only a few cities in Rheingau and in other German areas had the right to operate a loading device.
We will cite Cologne, Trier, Würzburg, Andernach, Bingen am Rhein, Stade and Hamburg, as cities, without doubt privileged. In the Rheingau region in the 15th century, only Eltville, Rüdesheim and Lorch obtained this privilege.
The history of crane in Oestricher is located on the right bank of the Rhine River, at kilometer 518.1, near Federal Highway 42. All treadwheelcranes from Rheingau and elsewhere, such as Trier and Andernach, were initially floating wooden cranes. These cranes were generally very prone to deterioration due to constant exposure to water and ice in winter.
This port treadwheel crane was begun to be built in 1744 (10). The boom of the crane is 12 meters. It has a conical roof to protect the crane. The conical roof with the ball and the tip of the roof is firmly connected to the upper end of a central column of vertical crane. Inside the crane house, there is a double wheel. The operation was in charge of two people per side.
The operating staff was well paid and affiliated with a guild called Aufläder. The load capacity of the wheel crane was approximately 2.5 tons. The crane today is functional.
Alte Krahnen, also called Trierer Alter Moselkran, is a harbor treadwheel crane located in Trier. The stone building dates from 1413 and is located on the right side of the Moselle River.
The design is a tower-type wheel crane, with two wheels that are 4.16 meters in diameter.
A double boom drives the crane. Initially it was equipped with a single feather, and since 1778 with a second feather as a counterweight. It has a rotating conical roof on a vertical axis of wood called Kaiserbaum 12 meters long. The conical roof is 360 ° rotating with two balancing arms and single pulley chain.
It has in iron spikes and chain of drum with chain and simple pulley. Its estimated load capacity is two tons. It has similarities with another crane of the same name "Alte Krahnen" in Andernach (10), also built in stone in Gothic style, although this crane is 100 years older. The oak gear of the crane house (Kranhaus) dates back to 1763. The treadwheel crane was damaged (although it was not destroyed) in 1944 by the war and in 1984 it was restored.
Medieval Crane in Andernach - Germany
The treadwheel crane was built between 1554 and 1561, was used until 1911 and is located at kilometer 613.8 of the Rín River. The crane house measures 10.70 meters outside diameter and 8.70 meters inside diameter. The walls are made of stone and have a thickness of 2 meters.
The Andernacher Krahnenwas the largest loading device among approximately 80 cranes in 32 locations in the inland waters of Germany and served for 350 years until 1911. At present it can only be seen from the outside. You can not visit.
The medieval treadwheel crane consists of two wheels of oak wood 4.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meters wide. The boom, which extends from the upper half of the pillar of the crane through the rotating roof, is formed by two heavy oak beams with support struts coated with lead sheet. It should be noted that the lifting capacity of the crane was estimated at 3.2 tons. The central drive shaft that joins the two wheels is 0.6 meters in diameter. On that axis a chain was wound (originally Rope).
The usual load to hoist were millstones and wine barrels. The roof is rotating, conical and covered in slate. As a novelty to the house of the treadwheel crane is also added a pyramid-shaped basalt icebreaker. This icebreaker stretched up to the height of the window to protect against drift from the ice.
The load and lift pen is made of a solid oak trunk, 0.64 meters in diameter and 10 meters high. It is also called "Kaiserbaum" or "support tree". Like the wheel crane of Gdańsk, this means of hoisting belongs to the category of cranes, which due to its height was also suitable for the installation of ship masts.
Tower of Daniel. Nördlingen - Germany
It is visible from a distance and it is the tower of the church of San Jorge, It is 90 meters high, it is called Daniel and it is considered the landmark of Nördlingen (it is called Daniel by a passage of the Bible, Dan 2-48 ". And the king exalted Daniel and made him ruler [...] of all Babylon.")
In the level 35.60 meters there is a treadwheel crane that was used for the construction of the tower. Apparently the operators of the crane were all prisoners.
The council of the city of Nördlingen decided to build the church of St. George on October 17, 1427. The choir of the church's hall was completed in 1451, and in 1454 the construction of the tower began. The high altar of Friedrich Herlin was completed in 1462, the tower in 1490. With the completion of the vault in 1505, construction was completed.
As a result, Nördlingen joined the Reformation under the Church of St. George became a Protestant church in 1523. The first restoration of the church took place between 1877 and 1887. In March 1945 a bomb destroyed the clock. More recently, the church and the tower were restored between the years 1971-1977.
If you are traveling to Germany from the United States to see this tourist attraction, inform yourself of the TSA Regulations for liquids and other items before boarding. Also for an express boarding you can contract TSA precheck
When was the first commercial coast to coast flight?
US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA. The Transcontinental Air Transportairline was like "The Lindbergh Line" and the idea began in the months after the 1927 transatlantic flight of Charles Lindbergh.
USA History of Tourism - The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT - Ford Tri-Motor
Who were the sponsors of the first commercial coast-to-coast flight in the USA?
The main sponsors of this commercial airline were:
Commander William Robertson
They set out to unite the coasts of the Atlantic and the Pacific, between the cities of New York and Los Angeles
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TAT investors were: The Curtiss companies, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation, the Atchison Railroad, Topeka and Santa Fe plus five investment banks. In the spring of 1928, the group formed Transcontinental Air Transport, Inc., with Clement Melville Keys (Curtiss) as chairman and a board of directors composed of representatives of major investors.
Charles Lindbergh Chairman of TAT Technical Committee
Charles Lindbergh became Chairman of the TATTechnical Committee. The Lindbergh Technical team designed the air route to follow. They chose 10 cities spaced between the coasts: Columbus, Ohio; Indianapolis, Ind .; St. Louis, Mo .; Kansas City, Kan .; Wichita, Kan .; Waynoka, Okla .; Clovis, NM; Albuquerque, NM; Winslow, Ariz .; and Glendale, California.
Transcontinental Air Transport bought or rented sites for airports. Pilots and mechanics were also hired, coordinated airline and rail schedules. They also directed the construction of runways, airport terminals and weather stations.
TAT tested the schedules of the stops between June 20 and July 6, 1929. Several pracytical trips and training with teams and personnel were made. Before the first client traveled, almost 50,000 test miles were recorded. Also transported 261 passengers through the different sections of the TAT route to make sure everything was ready.
How Were the Ford Trimotor 5-AT?
The Ford Tri-Motor was popularly dubbed the "Tin Goose". Its corrugated metal fuselage looked like a tin washboard, and his body seemed to crawl on the ground like the belly of a goose. The plane chosen by Lindbergh was the Ford TriMotor. According to Lindbergh, the Ford had more power and better maintenance than any other airplane.
Having three engines made flying on that plane safer than on other planes of that time. If one or maybe two engines stop running in flight, the TriMotor could land safely with only one of the two engines. The plane's cabin could accommodate a maximum of 10 passengers. The plane had been built to transport more people but Transcontinental Air Transport dismantled six seats to leave the place for a kitchen.
A very narrow corridor ran through the center of the passenger cabin. Next to each seat was a window covered with velvet curtains. Each passenger had their own reading lamp and also an electric lighter with an ashtray. The seats were adjustable to three positions and resembled more common splinters than the current seats of an airplane. The Ford TriMotor had a top speed of 110 miles per hour.
First Coast to Coast Flight: Inauguration Day in NYC
On July 7, 1929, transcontinental travel began. He initially offered a 48-hour coast-to-coast travel (night trains and day planes on several flights). The first Passengers had to board, first, a night train to take them to the airport in Columbus, Ohio (today is John Glenn International Airport), 850 miles away.
At the NYC Pennsylvania station, a Ford Tri-Motor called City of New Yorkwas in the hall. He was taken for the occasion and was Christening by Amelia Earhart. After the speeches, passengers boarded The Airway Limited on Platform 15, and the train departed to Columbus at 6:05 pm
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First Day: New York to Waynoka
Because The city's Union Station was located in the city center, TAT built its own train station and terminal at the Columbus airport. Thus, the transfer from train to plane was faster and more comfortable for passengers. It was a cloudy day with light rain that fell in Columbus on July 8, 1929. Passengers who arrived at the new Columbus Penn train station walked down a gangway to the Ford Tri-Motors aircraft.
The plan was for two Tri-Motors to take off at the same time and move together across the continent. The Ford Tri-Motor chosen were the so-called City of Columbus and the City of Wichita.
Who were the passengers on the first coast-to-coast flight in the USA?
The passengers on the City of Columbus Plane (2)
Colonel Edgar S. Correll (President, Stutz Motor Company, IN)
Paul Henderson. Jr. (Colonel Henderson's son)
Stay Brainerd (Associated Newspapers. NYC)
S.W. Higgins (Dennison Manufacturing Company, MA)
U. Grant Border (U.S. Border & Sons. NYC)
J.W. Brennan, (Central Traffic Manager. TAT)
Daniel M. Shafer (Chief of Passenger Transportation. Pennsylvania Railroad)
Albert A Garthwaite. (Vice President. Lee Tire Company. PA)
The passengers on the City of Wichita Plane :
Charles Tice (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
Carl Larsen (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
William Chaplin (Associated Press. NYC)
Miss M.A. Salomon (Chamber of Commerce. Brooklyn. NY)
Mn. John T. Litch (Boston. MA)
E.E. Greiner (Springfield. OH) William James Bryant (Nation's Business. D.C.)
Mn. George P. Putnam (NYC) Mn. F.C. Kenney (Indianapolis. IN)
After the two Ford Tri-Motor departed, Mr. T.B. Clement, the General Traffic Manager of Transcontinental Air Transport , hosted a breakfast in the TAT hangar. Important guests that attended the start of the inaugural flights and the celebration breakfast included
Henry Ford. ( Chairman of Ford Motor Company)
Eckel Ford (Henry Ford's son);
William B. Mayo (Chief Engineer of Ford Motor Company);
Harvey Firestone (Firestone Tire Company).
Early in the morning , at the Columbus Airport (3), the passengers board a Ford Trimotor plane and fly to Waynoka - Oklahoma. The plane had to stop 4 times to refuel before arriving in Oklahoma. There they boarded another night train on the Santa Fe Railroad for a trip to Clovis, New Mexico. On the train they spent the night and arrived at the next airport.
Around noon, the TAT flight stops in St. Louis, where pilots who had flown from Columbus were replaced by a new flight crew. TAT limited the flight time of its pilots to no more than five hours in the air in a single day. A TAT pilot earned more than $ 12,000 a year, more than double the salaries that most pilots earned at that time.
St. Louis to Kansas City: Lunch on Board
In the stage of St. Louis to Kansas City the passengers were served lunch. Ford trimotor stabilized, the service on board served some aluminum trays with napkin and tablecloth. The food was chicken, cheese and egg salad sandwiches, a pickle and salt. A piece of cake, an apple and a banana were also served. To accompany the meals the option was milk or coffee.
In Kansas City there was another technical stop, where any nervous passenger had the option of making a train connection. From Kansas City, the air route followed the Santa Fe rail route to the next stop in Wichita. Leaving Wichita, the trip to Waynoka was only 117 flight miles.
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Landing in Waynoka
At Landing in Waynoka, TAT passengers are driven by car to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe train station. There at dinner will be the Harvey House restaurant. The food was five stars;
Blue knitted oysters
Prairie Chicken with Redcurrant Jam
Pickled lamb tongue.
At 8 pm, TAT service personnel accompanied passengers to a special railroad car (The Missionary) bound for Clovis. The train left Waynoka at 11 p.m. through western Oklahoma and northern Texas. He stopped in the cities of Woodward, Shattuck, Canadian, Miami and Amarillo. In Clovis, passengers had breakfast in other Harvey House, when they arrived at the City
Second Day: Clovis to Los Angeles
First Coast to Coast Flight: From the Clovis train station, a car drove passengers to the Clovis terminal "Portair" five miles west of the city. The departure of the plane was scheduled for 8:10 AM. The plane took off and reached the height of 8,000 feet. Passengers expect a trip with three stopovers to refuel before reaching their final destination. The name of Ford Tri-Motor is “City of Wichita,”
Albuquerque was the first stop on the second day of flight. After the stopover, a light lunch was served and the service was withdrawn before arriving at the Continental Division. The most dangerous part of the trip, the flight from Albuquerque to Kingman through Winslow, was also the most picturesque.
In the late afternoon, the TAT Ford Tri-Motor approaches through the Cajon Pass between the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains in California. Approaching Glendale Airport, their final destination, the plane slid over Pasadena, north of Los Angeles. Also about Hollywood and movie studios.
Coast to Coast Travel: Inauguration Day in Los Angeles
The same day at Grand Central Air Terminal near Los Angeles, two Ford Tri-Motor 1929 were christened. The TAT Tri-Motors were the Ciry of Los Angeles and the City of Philadelphia. Mary Pidcford christened the City of Los Angeles, and Gloria Swanson christened the Ciry of Philadelphia.
A huge crowd of approximately 30,000 turned out for the christening and viewed the historic beginning of transcontinental service to the east.
Charles Lindbergh piloted the City of Los Angeles on its inaugural travel to the east. (2)
Mrs. R.K. Rochester Charles Walker (Fox News, Los Angeles)
Miss Velva Darling (Los Angeles)
John B. Austin (President. Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles)
Turner Wills (Los Angeles)
Charles Lindbergh that day flew the plane "City of Los Angeles" to Winslow, Arizona. From there, the next day on July 9, Charles Lindbergh flew the City of Philadelphia, back to Los Angeles. With the return flight, traveled Amelia Earhart and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh.
A curiosity: Upon arrival in Los Angeles (Glendale) there was a second christening of the Ford Trimotor 1929 City of Philadelphia. Again Gloria Swanson, movie star, christening for the second time the City of Philadelphia. Some 20,000 people attended the second christening of the plane that had just completed the first voyage of the transcontinental passenger airline.
During the first month of TAT ( Lindbergh Line) operations, 153 passengers traveled the entire route. Also 280 passengers made shorter trips between intermediate points. TAT reported that its passenger transport capacity index was 37 percent. 99.4 percent of scheduled miles were completed. The planes flew 113,240 of the planned 113,957 miles. The number of passengers and miles traveled increased during the following months.
Ford Tri-Motor 1929: Two Air Crash in Five Months
On September 3, 1929, a Ford Tri-Motor 1929 5-AT-21B NC 9647 "City of San Francisco", westbound TAT flight crashed into Mt. Taylor in New Mexico. "All passengers and crew aboard died. The Associated Press said it was the first plane crash on a regular commercial land route. The September accident was the first of three serious accidents for TAT in the next five months. It was the first disaster of a commercial airline.
On January 19, 1930TAT Flight Number 7, Ford Tri-Motor 5-AT-C crashed north of Oceanside, California. The plane encountered rain, low clouds, fog, and possibly engine problems, Flying from the races at Agua Caliente, near Tijuana, Mexico to Los Angeles.
The left wing struck the ground, slamming the aircraft into the ground, which subsequently caught fire. The pilots and all 14 passengers aboard died in the crash. Charles Lindbergh, as chairman of TAT technical committee, was involved in the investigation.
Ford Tri-Motor 1929 & Western Air Express
After the first accident many of the Transcontinental Air Transport passengers chose the train. TAT began offering more services on board, but they had no effect. The fall of the stock market in October 1929 plus the second accident, put Transcontinental Air Transport on the verge of Bankruptcy
The government offered airlines long-term mail contracts in exchange for buying larger and safer airplanes for passenger transport.Transcontinental Air Transport, which did not carry mail, merged with Western Air Express, which already had a contract with the government. The merger was announced on October 25, 1930. The company that later became TWA stopped operating its train service. From that moment on, the entire route began to fly with only one night stop in Kansas City..
Are Ford Tri Motors still flying?
Two Ford Trimotors are still being used by the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) to fly passengers on sightseeing tours : a 4 -AT-E, bought by the association after a crash and fully restored Also a 5-AT-B owned by the Liberty Aviation Museum. At present there are almost 18 Ford Trimotor among those that are in operation, restoration and exhibition in museums. We will deal with this later in another note-
Tips of First Coast to Coast Flight: US History of Tourism - TAT
The one-way fare from New York to Los Angeles was $ 352. It would be worth about $ 5,000 in 2019
The trip lasted 48 hours - Train & Ford Trimotor
The height of the flight was 8,000 feet.
People made fun of the airline abbreviation (TAT) interpreting it as "Take A Train"
Tags: The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT - US History of Tourism - Ford Tri-Motor - Charles Lindbergh - Amelia Earhart - City of Los Angeles - City of Wichita - City of New York