Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines 

A collaboration of Marty Martinez

The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.

From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.

1866

2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God Philippine Resealed Coin

As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route.  Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.

Circulated coins,  were also circulated after 1828, which for different reasons, arrived on the island. It should be noted that the Spanish monetary system at that time was adopted by all American countries (including the United States and Canada). Also some countries of Africa, and it meant what today is the dollar-USA monetary system. Denominations of the currencies of the new countries were also made in Reals.

Peruvian Republic - Lima

Coins Resealed. by Fernando VII for its circulation in Manila (8 reales). resealed of 1828 on 8 reales of the Peruvian Republic, Lima, 1828, assayer JM

Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Republic of Chile

 Chile Republic : Over 1 Peso  1834. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Peru - Lima

Philippine Currency 1833. Columns resealed. Republic of Peru. 8 reales. Lima. 1833.  Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4) assayer M

Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin


 

1834. Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin Under Crown, eal de a 8 de Perú 1834, Lima MM. MBC
1834. Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin Under Crown, eal de a 8 de Perú 1834, Lima MM. MBC

 

 

Bolivian Republic - Potosi

Bolivian Republic. 8 soles. Potosí. 1833. LM. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4)

Assayer LM

Republic of Bolivia - Coins Countermarked Philippines

 

Republic of Mexico - Guanajuato

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. Guanajuato. 1830. MJ. Researched by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1834-7). Assayer MJ

Mexican republic - Philippine Resealed Coin
Mexican Republic - Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Mexico - Durango

 Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. 1828. On an 8 reales of Durango of 1828. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Mexico Durando - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines


See another resealed coins: Museu  Nacional D´Art de Catalunya

From 1810….

From 1810 the independentistas minted coins with types clearly differentiated from the Spaniards. As the American currencies of all securities circulated through the territory of the Philippines, the authorities realized the negative effect that these currencies could have there. Therefore, on October 13, 1828, the Captaincy General decreed that all coins should be resold with the following type:

On the obverse, the coat of arms of Spain with the legend; ENABLED BY KING N. S. D. FERN. Vii.

On the reverse, MANILA with the corresponding year that is almost always 1828.

see: Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

Design of Coins - Assayers

Design was completed with a series of grooves engraved.  on the obverse die that in principle would erase any trace of Republican legend. This was not so, this first type is known as type I and the same were coined the year 1828 and the very rare of 1830. From the year 1829 we know a 8 escudos.

The reverse remained the same but from the obverse disappeared any legend or drawing leaving only the coat of arms. Dr. Pablo I. de Jesus de Manila has written a study on this series for which he has found about 400 different copies.

Clearing the Revolutionary - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Past On October 13, 1828, D. Mariano Ricafort, Captain General of the Philippine Islands, a division of the Viceroyalty of Mexico, issued an edict introducing a system of marking the weights and ounces of gold produced by the “insurrect provinces and revolutionary governments “Of the South American continent. Thus, infamous words, such as “Republic”, “Independent” and “Free”, were eliminated.

The heavy machinery of the mint smoothed the designs of the offending coins and attempted to eliminate any trace of the original coin by minting “Manila -1829” on one side and the Spanish coat of arms on the other, with the legend “Enabled by King N.S.D. Fernando VII “and surrounded both wedges by a wide sawed edge.

Medal Carlos III  1782 

José Gabriel Gil  Assayer

Carlos III of Spain - Philippine Resealed Coin
Carlos III of Spain Medal

Local authorities clung to the hope that with these methods they could prevent the spread of the announcement of “Union and Freedom” carried out nineteen years earlier by the rebel provinces of Río de la Plata.

  • “Union y Fuerza”, proclaimed ten years before By “Independence of Chile,” issued thirteen years earlier by Nueva Granada.
  • “Por la Virtud y la Justicia,” proclaimed a decade earlier by Peru,.
  • “Libre, Cresca, Fecundo” spread by the Central American Republic ( Guatemala ) only eight years ago , And the even more recent declaration of sovereignty of Bolivia “Libres por la Constitucion”.

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Circulation only in Phlipines

These coins did not circulate in Spain,  and they did until its replacement by a currency of the Kingdom that is shown below. The mint of Manila only coined throughout its history copper (between 1728 and 1835 and the year 1861). Because this weight, in quantity of six million pieces and with types equal to the hard ones of Puerto Rico of 1895, was carved in Madrid, and transported to the Philippines where it circulated until in 1904 it was withdrawn from circulation by the American authorities.

1861 - Inauguration of Manila's Mint House - Philipines

 1861 Isabel 2a Queen of Spain. Medal


With Alfonso XIII the last pieces destined to Ultramar are minted with the values ​​of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents of weight. In addition, the so-called “alfonsino weight” is emitted in two issues, one of 1897 destined to circulate in the Philippines and another one of 1895 to circulate in Puerto Rico.

The latter had a divider of 40 cents. The “alfonsino weight” is equivalent to the 5 pesetas  of the Metropolis. Alfonso XIII was king of Spain between 1886 and 1931, dying in the Roman exile in 1941.

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1868 Isabel 2a instead of II, Queen of Spain. Coins Countermarked Philippines

Coins Countermarked Philippines


Philipine Coin Manila 50 Cents 1880 - Alfonso XII 

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1880. Alfonso XII King of Spain. Coins Countermarked PhilippinesCoins Countermarked Philippines

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Samsonite Store on amazon products 2021

Alfonso XII  – Coined Manila 20 Cents 1885

Spain – Coined Manila 20 Cents in weight. 1885. SGV (Arturo Sandoval and Antonio García González, assayers, Remigio Vega Vega, judge of Balance). Coins Countermarked Philippines

Philippine Resealed Coin

GUAM - 1899 Philippine Resealed Coin

In the year 1899, to leave testimony of the occupation of the island, the admiral of the fleet American F. V. Green used a countermark on Philippine island weights that contained the word "GUAM" and the year of occupation

GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines
GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Related Post

The History of Tourism in Ancient Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism


This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here
Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary. History of Classical Tourism in ancient times.  See Tourism in Ancient Greece

Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Tourism in Ancient Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa - Orange - (France) Classical Tourism

Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with displacements between distant places, with the main intention of developing leisure, rest, culture, health, business or family relations.

These movements are differentiated by their purpose of other types of travel originated by wars, migratory movements or conquest. But tourism has many historical antecedents.How was the tourism in ancient time?

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How was the tourism in ancient time?

Tourism and travel in ancient times, short or long distances was an important and dangerous business. It required careful planning.
Most of the trips were made for religious reasons, war, diplomacy, health reasons or training in schools of scholars. They also go to festivals such as the Olympic Games or the Dionysian Games,

Travel in Ancient Greece - Tourism in Roman Era
Travel in Ancient Rome - Tourism in Roman Era - the romans empire

Traveling in ancient times: Slaves & Tourism

In Ancient Rome free men gave great importance to leisure, and devoted it to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. We must remember that all these activities could only be done by free men of the upper class or the Nobles. Many slaves were also available at that time.

Approximately seven slaves for each free man. It is for this reason that tourism was an exclusive activity of wealthy class that moved with servants, slaves and a considerable guard for protection. The tourist activity that was not religious.

 

Amphitheaters & Odeon of Lyon (France) -- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Tourism in Ancient Rome: Odeon of Lyon (France) –

What was it like to travel in the Roman Empire?

During Roman Empire, the Romans frequented thermal waters and great spectacles, like the theaters, and the coliseums. They made trips to the Mediterranean coast in the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Campania area (near Naples).Also the island of Capri, where there were summer residences. The Emperor Tiberius had a villa on the island of Capri (today you can visit its ruins). These pleasure trips were possible due to Pax Romana, the development of communication routes. They also influenced economic prosperity due to the trade that allowed the creation of an upper class. And of course free time.


Travel in Ancient Rome: A Bit of Roman History

Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) - Travel in Ancient Rome
Amphitheaters of Nimes (France) – Travel in Ancient Rome

During the empire (27 BC to 476 AD) begins a period of absolutism in Rome, where the emperor was chosen by the army. With Octavio Augusto (first emperor) the Pax Romana was achieved, which lasted approximately 200 years. In this epoch is where the Roman tourism had its maxima. The empire was divided into provinces that in turn were divided into Municipium and Coloniae.  It is depending on their legal hierarchy Each territorial division had services for public enjoyment and entertainment, which were sometimes visited by inhabitants of other territories.

Temple of Juno- Nimes France
Temple of Juno- Nimes France – Travel in Ancient Rome

The Roads in the Ancient Roman Empire

Rome  -  Pont du Gard   -  Roman Sex Festivities.  - Roman Roads Calculator

How were the Roads Built in Ancient Rome?

The Romans built three types of strategic roads (viae): the so-called

  • Stratis Lapidibus (Paved)
  • Injecta Glarea (Affirmed)
  • Terrenea (Flattened)

Siculus Flacus, Roman Gromaticus (land surveyor), in the 1st century, classifies the roads into:

How were the Roads Built in Ancient Rome? - Ancient Roman Roads
How were the Roads Built in Ancient Rome?  Ancient Roman Roads

Viae publicae - Public Roads

What were the Viae publicae (Public Roads) in Ancient Rome?

The main roads of the Empire are called viae Praetoriae, viae Militari or viae Consulares. It was the State that was in charge of its construction, but the cities and the owners of the areas crossed by these roads had to guarantee its maintenance. The average found for the width of the public roads was 6 to 12m.

Roman Enginering on Amazon
Roman Enginering on Amazon

Viae Vicinales - Neighborhood Roads

What were the Viae Vicinales (Neighborhood Roads) in Ancient Rome?

They started from public roads and allowed several Vicus in the same region to be joined together. They were the majority of the routes of the network. The average width of a viae vicinalis was about 13 feet.

What were the Viae privataes (Private Roads) in Ancient Rome?
What were the Viae privataes (Private Roads) in Ancient Rome?

Viae privataes, Rusticae, Agrariae - Private Roads

What were the Viae privataes (Private Roads) in Ancient Rome?

They united the main properties, the villae, with the viae vicinales et publicae. They were private, reserved for the exclusive use of the owner who financed it in its entirety. The average width of a Viae Privata (Private Roads) was 8 to 13 feet

The roads were initially used to facilitate the advance or displacement of the Roman legions. Of course they were also used for administrative, commercial and tourist purposes. The main roads were financed by the State, and the secondary roads were paid for by the affected municipalities. Along the roads, every 20 or 25 Roman miles, mansions, resting places and also for changing horses were built.

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Clear Toiletry Bag, Pack TSA 311 Bag - TSA packing rules 2021

There are documents that provide data on the existing road network in times of the Roman Empire, the best known is the "Itinerarium Provinciarum Antonini Augusti", known as the Itinerary of Antonino, from the year 280, of unknown author. It collects the 372 most important roads from Rome to the furthest points of the Empire, recording the existing mansions and the distances between them, totaling about 60,000 Roman miles

 

How Were The Roman Roads Built?

The main construction group was made up of the works Manager (Curator Operis), the Contractor, (Maceps), the Engineer, (Architectus), the Specialized workers (Cementarius) and the Bricklayers, (Structures).

To level the land they used excavation tools. They cut two parallel furrows with an Aratrum (Plow) 40 feet apart; These furrows were the Fossae (ditches) and they allowed to know the conditions of the subsoil. If it was not adequate, it was replaced or repaired, or wooden piles were driven into it.

Once the bottom was consolidated, a layer of sand 0.5 feet thick called Pavimentum was added in which the stones of the Statumen were embedded with a thickness that varied depending on the state of the soil from one to two feet.

How Were The Roman Roads Built?
How Were The Roman Roads Built?

The Stones - Built Roads in Ancient Rome

The agglomeration of the stones was done with lime or clay. After the statumen, a second layer called Rudus was placed. This layer used to be almost a foot thick and was composed of pebbles or small stones, plastered with lime mortar and compacted with the pavicula or rammer.

The third layer was the so-called Nucleus, which consisted of gravel concrete and slaked lime. It was consolidated with a roller, (Cylindrus), and its thickness varied from the ends of 1 foot to 1.5 feet. The next layer was the Summa Crusta or Summun Dorsum. This layer was placed on top of the previous one before it set. The cape could be made with blocks of polygonal stones with regular or irregular shape, (Opus Incertum). In other cases the layer was made of concrete with shale blocks placed on edge or simply gravel. The total thickness of the roadway was 3 to 5 feet and its width between ditches was 4 feet.

Built Roads in Ancient Rome
Built Roads in Ancient Rome

It also had lateral edges 1.5 feet high and 2 feet wide supported by the statumen, on which the Centurion (infantry officer) walked. From time to time, stones called Gradus were placed on the road, which was a pedestal that was used to climb on horseback. There were also stones called miliarii, milestones, which marked the distance every thousand Roman steps,

Samsonite Pro Travel Softside Expandable Carry-On TSA Approved
Samsonite Pro Travel Softside Expandable Carry-On TSA Approved

Bridges & Tunnels

When necessary, bridges were built and tunnels dug for the continuation of the road. In that case, more sophisticated tools were used such as Roman wheel cranes that lifted up to two tons. This type of crane was used in the Middle Ages and even some cranes survived until the 19th century. Here you can find information about the Roman wheel cranes in Germany, France and England, which can be seen today

Roman Crane
Roman Crane

That it was a Roman Mile?

In ancient Rome the Roman mile was equivalent to the distance traveled in a thousand steps (in Latin: mille passus, plural: milia passuum). For the Romans, one step was equivalent to two steps of the current ones, since they considered the stride as a complete cycle: the distance traveled by one of the feet after resting on the opposite foot. In turn, a passus was equivalent to five Roman feet. The Roman mile (milia passum in Latin) is 5,000 Roman feet and equals 1,481 meters in the decimal metric system and 0.92 United States miles

That it was a Roman Mile?
That it was a Roman Mile? Pompeii Road

Calculating Distances

There is an online application called Statio Orbis, which calculates the distance between different places of the Roman Empire. It includes land and sea routes, both in winter and in summer. You can read Orbis's note here

Statio Orbis - Stanford University

What items are not allowed in checked luggage? - Travel Electronic Organizer
What items are not allowed in checked luggage? - Travel Electronic Organizer

The Roman Ways Today

Very few and very few sections have survived. They are found sporadically in museums or outdoors in countries such as Italy, Spain, England, France and some countries in Africa.

Remember that when traveling you must comply with the TSA Rules when using airports within the United States

 

What Places did Tourism go to in Ancient Rome?

These attractions were temples, circus maxima, pantheons, basilicas, markets, amphitheatres and theaters. All the provinces and colonies communicated through a network of roads, roads and roads, which began to be built around 150 BC, covering some 100,000 miles. This allowed to reach the entire empire from Scotland and Germany to Egypt, Persia and Crimea

Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Rome
Roman Roads -- Tourism in Ancient Rome Map by Sasha Trubetskoy

The Roads in Ancient Rome Were for Military Use?

In the beginning the Roman roads were designed for military use. Legions and military equipment could be moved much faster than if they were transferred to cross country. The time of transfer between cities was shortened not only for military use but for trade and tourism. Patrician families used to send their children to Greece to receive rhetoric and philosophy classes. In this case, the route by sea was the most chosen, for the comforts and speed compared to the terrestrial displacement. Accommodation facilities on routes far from the Roman metropolis were very scarce.

Julius Caesar, who was traveling at an extraordinary speed, traveled from the Rhone ( germany)  to Rome in about eight days. However, the fastest journey of antiquity was, the one that made Tiberius to Drusus from Tichinum in Germany, a distance of 200 miles, made in 20 hours even though he had only one guide and had to make several changes of mount.

 

ORBIS  - University of Stanford  Raod & Network Calculator on Line

 

How Were the Roads in Ancient Rome?

There were stone signs indicating the distance to the next city, the name of the road, its construction date and its constructor Every 10 miles approx. There were some posts where travelers could change their exhausted horses and even eat. It was through these trade routes that tourism was developed as a secondary activity. Maritime routes were also used, being the main ports those of Alexandria / Egypt), Ostia (Italy), Siracuse ( Italy)  and Cartago Nova ( Spain).

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Clear Toiletry Bag, Pack TSA 311 Bag - TSA packing rules 2022


How Much it Cost Per Mile to Travel in the Roman Empire?

Travel in Ancient Rome: Besides being dangerous, traveling in ancient Rome was also very expensive, especially by Land. Only those who had good reasons to travel traveled, be they economic or, more often, military. A long overland carriage ride could cost on the order of a denarius per mile. According to the Bible, a denarius was the daily salary of a worker, so one can get used to the idea of the enormous economic effort involved in moving around the Empire.

Pont du Gard - France

The Pont du Gard, - France - The Roman aqueduct poster on Amazon - Traveling in Ancient Times
The Pont du Gard, - France - The Roman aqueduct poster on Amazon - Traveling in Ancient Times

 

Why Were There Stones on the Side of the Roads in the Roman Empire?

Plutarch, attributed to Gaius Graco, the placement of stones on the sides of the road, at close distance from each other, so that those who traveled on horseback could ride from them without the assistance of slaves. Keep in mind that the Romans did not use stirrups when riding.
The roads had a post service every five or six Roman miles and it was possible to travel through the Roman Empire at a rate of about one hundred miles a day or more. The journey from Antioch to Constantinople, a distance of 752 miles could be made in about six or seven days.

Triumph Arch in Via Domitia - Saint Remy de Provence - (France)- Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Triumph Arch in Via Domitia and Mausoleum of Glanum - Saint Remy de Provence - (France) - Traveling in Ancient Times

The mausoleum of Glanum is a Roman funerary monument located in the ancient city of Glanum, near the city of Saint-Rémy de Provence (France). Built between the years 30 and 20 BC (August Emperor) It is a tribute to a family of Gallic origin that obtained Roman citizenship fighting in the Roman army. There is an inscription in the mummies

SEX.M.L.IVLEI.C.F.PARENTIVUS.SVEIS
--SEX (your) M (arcus) L (ucius) IVLIEI C (aii) • F (ilii) PARENTIBVS SVEIS--
SEXTUS, LUCIUS (and) MARCUS IULII (Julia) SONS of CAIUS (dedicate this) to their parents

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Hound Outward - Lifeguard For Dogs
Hound Outward - Lifeguard For Dogs

Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping

Julius Caesar, in 75 B.C. He had had to flee from Rome since he was at odds with the Roman dictator Sila. Banished to the Aegean Islands to avoid the assassins of Sila, he devoted himself to study and prepare for when he returned to Rome. It was just on a trip to study at the Oratory and Eloquence Academy of Molon of Rodas was tackled by sackcloth pirates - (Cilicia, on the south coast of present-day Turkey)

History of Tourism map

The pirates valued the rescue to be requested by the crew in a total of 20 talents. Julius Caesar to the astonishment of the pirates, he told them to ask for nothing more and nothing less than 50 talents for his life. Obviously the pirates had nothing to object to.

A talent corresponded to the weight of a cubic foot of water, which in ancient Rome amounted to 75 Pounds / 1200 oz. If we say that gold, today, is U$S 1400 per Oz, Total are U$S 1,680,000 per tatent

Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping
Travel in Ancient Rome: Julius Caesar - Academic Trip and Kidnapping

Gaius Julius Caesar was transferred to the island of Farmacusa (off the coast of Halicarnassus), where he stayed, together with a friend and two servants held by the pirates. The rest of the crew was sent to seek rescue. It was 38 days before the envoys came with the money, in which the chroniclers (Plutarch, especially) tells that Julius Caesar, rather than being imprisoned, lived like a king

He dedicated himself to sports, writing poetry, studying and writing speeches - which forced his kidnappers to listen - and even silenced the pirates when they wouldn't let him sleep.

During his captivity, Julius Caesar threated that when he was released, he would capture them, recover the money and crucify them. Obviously, the pirates didn't take it too seriously. Once the rescue was obtained Julio César was released

#Venus Callipyge: The #Roman Statue of the Beautiful #Buttocks #Aphrodite #history
Venus Callipyge: The Roman Statue of the Beautiful Buttocks - Traveling in Ancient Times

Once released he went to Pergamum, where he got 500 soldiers and 4 ships, returning to Farmacusa and catching the pirates in full celebration for their loot, capturing them without too much trouble. The 350 pirates were taken to Pergamum again. There, Julius Caesar sent everyone to 30, who were crucified as he had promised. of course, as a humanitarian detail made them slaughter before crucifying them.

In this way, Julius Caesar  apart from creating a reputation that did not leave him until Bruto murdered him many years later, he managed to keep the 50 rescue talents. 

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SAMSONITE Store on amazon products 2021
Samsonite Store on amazon products 2021

 Only the rich made tourism in the Roman Empire?

The Roman citizens were very fond of tourism, in most cases for pleasure. We must consider that it is the same case as the Greeks. Only free noble and upper class men could afford a tourist transfer. This transfer included servants, slaves, clients and armed escort. This was both by land and by sea. The only documented case of the displacement of a high class and noble character was that of Cato the Elder, Senator and Roman governor of Hispania (Present Spain).
Cato was mobilized on foot or on horseback with only one servant. The day he left to be governor he sold the horse so as not to cause more expenses to the treasury. Needless to say, his example was not imitated by anyone.

Roman Theater - Orange -- (France) Tourism in Ancient Rome
Roman Theater - Orange - France -- Tourism in Ancient Rome

Returning to the main theme, tourism among the Romans included a displacement overnight at least one night and less than a year to a place of destination. All this done, of course, in free time. They had a lot of free time, getting to have 200 holidays a year (in 345 AD)

Religious Tourism and Roman Sex Festivities

One reason why the citizens of the Roman Empire mobilized were the religious festivals, to worship a certain god in particular. Some of these parties ended in sex parties, so it could be said that sex tourism already existed in the time of the Romans.

The following were the best known Roman Sex Festivities

The Lupercales
Bacanales
The Floralia

The Lupercales

It was one of the rituals of ancient Rome and with more sexual charge, whose purpose was the exaltation of fertility. It was celebrated every February 15 they were held around the Palatine Hill.

Its name derives from lupus (wolf), in reference to Fauno Luperco, Romanization of the irrigation god Pan, god of forests, agriculture and grazing. Luperco was the god of fertility and unbridled male sexuality, endowed with great potency and sexual appetite. More information

Triumph Arch in Via Appia - Arch of Trajan Bebenentum Italy
Triumph Arch in Via Appia - Arch of Trajan Bebenentum Italy

Roman Bacchanalia

Tito Livio assures that the cult of Dionysus originates from the regions of Etruria and Campania. In Etruria originally the cult was secret, diurnal, and celebrated only by women, on March 16 and 17 in the sacred forest of Semele, behind the docks, near the Aventine.

Although this cult underwent important changes after the leadership of Paculla Annia, allowing the initiation into the cult of adolescent men under twenty years of age, although the prohibition to participate in the Bacchanalia was still in force for the rest of the men. In these rites an initiation oath was given to safeguard the secret and sacred unity of the group.

According to the data provided, the initiates, after passing a stage of chastity and abstinence, could be integrated into the famous Bacchic rituals, where they drank and danced in a frenzied atmosphere, with shouts and ritual possessions. We are described how married women possessed by the god Bacchus ran frantically disguised as Maenads.

It also seems that all kinds of lustful acts, both heterosexual and homosexual, took place at the bacchanalia at a time when homosexuality had not yet spread among sober Roman society.  More information.

 

Religious Tourism and Roman Sex Festivities: Bacanales
Religious Tourism and Roman Sex Festivities: Bacanales

 

The Floralia

The Floraria was a Roman festival that was celebrated in honor of Flora, goddess of spring, vegetation and fertility in general. This festival was celebrated between April 28 and May 3, and symbolized the renewal of the cycle of life, which is why it became a party of a happy and relaxed nature, marked by dances, drinks and flowers.

She is considered one of the protective divinities of prostitutes since her cult was very popular among Roman prostitutes and during their festivities, they took on great prominence. More information.


Travel in Ancient Rome: Non-Religious Tourism

The Romans traveled to see the temples of the Mediterranean, the pyramids and monuments of Egypt. Also to attend the Olympic Games in Greece and the prosperous markets of Asia Minor. In these markets there were many exotic items never seen in Rome, with which to decorate the villas of Campania.

They also hired local guides and consulted papyri that explained a certain area and their entertainment possibilities. They were the tour guides of that time. Of course they bought something smaller as souvenirs and had a tendency to engrave the traveler's name on the stones of the monuments they visited. This was at the request of the inhabitants, since the prestige of a noble visitor attracted more tourists.

 

Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) Tourism in Ancient Rome
Temple of Juno - Nimes - (France) -Tourism in Ancient Rome

The trips were made for pleasure, business or health or religious issues. Religious tourism and pilgrimages to both Greek and Roman temples became part of almost every tourist itinerary. But it was not about devotion but about entertainment. These temples were visited by tourists who in some cases were no longer sacred places, but monuments to visit. (almost equal to what happens today in the Catholic churches of Europe)

 

Travel in Ancient Rome & Weekend Roman Villas: Capri & Pompeii

The Romans also liked to spend a leisure time away from the city and used to move to the Campania (Naples). From the time of the empire of Octavius ​​Augustus, the Senate was no longer an institution of power. The emperor reigned and were not consulted.

The senators retired to live in the countryside, near Rome but away from it. The area chosen was Campania, Cities such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Tivoli, Beneventum and Islands such as Capri, where luxury villas were built. Infrastructure was also built as additional roads, ports, passenger ships, inns and markets.

Pompeii History
Pompeii History of Tourism - Travel in Ancient Rome

The houses in the city of Rome became the second residence and the country villa the habitual residence. You find the infrastructure was also built in those country places. Amphitheatres (Pompeii), circus maxima, thermal baths and medicinal baths. all this thanks to the pax romana that lasted approximately 250 years from the reign of Octavius Augustus.

Emperor Caracalla built in Rome the baths that bear his name. They were public baths that had steam rooms, pools of hot water (caldarium) and cold (frigidarium), gymnastics, rest and massage rooms. There were also writing rooms, libraries and gardens. 

On the island of Capri, the Tiberian emperor built a luxurious villa with a swimming pool. You can still visit today's day

Pompeii Brothels Sex Painting

Travel in Ancient Rome: Amphitheaters for all

The construction of the Maximum Circus and the Colosseum in Rome, led to tourism also going in the other direction. Inhabitants of the entire empire wished to know Rome. The network of roads, security and the pax romana contributed to a flow of tourists to the Rome.

They also built amphitheatres like the Colosseum in Rome and theaters in other cities, which also enjoyed a fair share of tourists. We can name the theater of Orange (France) and the amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France).  That amphitheaters can be visited nowadays and in a very good state of conservation.

amphitheaters of Nimes and Arles (France) Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Amphitheater of Nimes (France) Travel in Ancient Rome

Backpacks

Ship to Philippines

Backpacks on Amazon 2021
Backpacks on Amazon 2021

My Darling, and if We Visit Sparta?

During the Roman domination in Greece, the city of Sparta, powerful and famous in other times became a focus of tourism on the part of the Roman upper class. Sparta no longer had possibilities of any kind, military or economic or political. But focused on their ancestral military education to young people. The education of the It was so hard that it became a tourist attraction in itself

 

Amphitheater in Sparta Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome
Travel in Ancient Rome: Amphitheater in Sparta

 

 

The Ritual

The ritual combats that had traditionally been fought in the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, under Roman domination, became the dimastígosis (they existed for a long time) ,  where the children were scourged and sometimes even death. Also the Romans had a deep curiosity to discover how a city so feared in its time, I am reduced to a town of goat herders and a circus military education.

Cicero tells in the Tusculanas (II 34) how Spartan education and its excesses had become a spectacle that attracted tourists. The crowd that comes to the show is so numerous that it was necessary to build an amphitheater in front of the temple to welcome it. This show attracted tourists until the fourth century of our era. Documented by Libanio in his Discourses, (I, 23).

Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  - History of Tourism 
Rome Amphitheater. Coliseum- Italy  - History of Tourism

Is there a Roman Empire Roads Calculator?

Rome  -  Roman Roads  - Pont du Gard   -  Roman Sex Festivities

Yes. Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire. You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator and Trade Network
Roman Empire: Routes Calculator

You may be interested: Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages

Choose the place of departure and destination

And press calculate

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator

Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt

Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road londinium to coptos

How much did it cost to travel in the Roman Empire?

Costs in denarii > In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62 , Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29, Per passenger in a car: 2778.04

How much did it cost to travel in the Roman Empire from Carthage Nova to Rome?

Cartago Nova ( Cartagena - Spain)  to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer. 

Roman Empire: Road and Trade Network - Cartago nova to Rome

Same route as the previous one but in winter

Cartago nova to Rome in winter


How much did it cost to travel in the Roman Empire from Londinium to Rome in Winter and Summer?

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator:  from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route. 29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.

 

Roman Empire: Roads Calculator - londinium to Rome in winter
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator


A Little History of Roman Roads

The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before.
He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire.
The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.



The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic commercial or administrative.  The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire

 

Roman Roads of Britain
Roman Roads of Britain by Sasha Trubetskoy

 

Related Post & References

 

Roman, roman emperor,  emperor of roman, romans empires, empires roman, empire of roman, of the roman empire. the romans empire, empire in rome, empire of rome, the roman empire, the empire rome, empires romans,  empire roman,  rome's empire, romanian empire, the empire of rome,  ancient rome's, ancient roman, rome empire map, Religious Roman Sex Festivities

History of Tourism in Middle Ages – Medieval Travel

Roman Empire   –  Rome  –  Saint James What is Tourism in the Medieval Times? Fall of the Roman Empire & Medieval Travel History of Medieval Tourism – How did you travel in the Middle Ages?:The fall of the Roman Empire plunged the European continent into a period of great confusion and disorder. For a time there was also an almost permanent state of war between the barbarian chiefs, who had invaded the ancient Roman empire. This contributed to the weakening …

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US History of Tourism: First Coast to Coast Flight 1929

When was the first commercial coast to coast flight?

US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA.   The Transcontinental Air Transport airline was like "The Lindbergh Line" and the idea began in the months after the 1927 transatlantic flight of Charles Lindbergh. 

 

 USA History of Tourism - The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT -  Ford Tri-Motor

STOKES COLLECTION 1934 American Classics / 16.5" x 11" . Ford Trimotor - Amazon.com Poster Vintage
Stokes Collection 1934 American Classics / 16.5" x 11" . Ford Trimotor - Amazon.com Poster Vintage

Who were the sponsors of the first commercial coast-to-coast flight in the USA?

The main sponsors of this commercial airline were:

  • Charles Lindbergh,
  • Harold Bixby,
  • Henry Breckinridge,
  • Harry Knight
  • Commander William Robertson

They set out to unite the coasts of the Atlantic and the Pacific, between the cities of New York and Los Angeles

First Coast to Coast Flight 1929 Map - US History of Tourism: #USA #History

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Vintage poster Ads
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TWA Ads & Prints on Amazon

US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA. 

TAT investors were: The Curtiss companies, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation, the Atchison Railroad, Topeka and Santa Fe plus five investment banks. In the spring of 1928, the group formed Transcontinental Air Transport, Inc., with Clement Melville Keys (Curtiss) as chairman and a board of directors composed of representatives of major investors.

Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Ford 5-AT Tri-Motor - US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA. 
History of Tourism: Ford Tri-Motor  5 AT  - Pic: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (1)

Charles Lindbergh Chairman of TAT Technical Committee

Charles Lindbergh became Chairman of the TAT Technical Committee. The Lindbergh Technical team designed the air route to follow. They chose 10 cities spaced between the coasts: Columbus, Ohio; Indianapolis, Ind .; St. Louis, Mo .; Kansas City, Kan .; Wichita, Kan .; Waynoka, Okla .; Clovis, NM; Albuquerque, NM; Winslow, Ariz .; and Glendale, California.

Transcontinental Air Transport bought or rented sites for airports. Pilots and mechanics were also hired, coordinated airline and rail schedules. They also directed the construction of runways, airport terminals and weather stations.

TAT tested the schedules of the stops between June 20 and July 6, 1929. Several pracytical trips and training with teams and personnel were made. Before the first client traveled, almost 50,000 test miles were recorded. Also transported 261 passengers through the different sections of the TAT route to make sure everything was ready.

 

How Were the Ford Trimotor 5-AT?

The Ford Tri-Motor was popularly dubbed the "Tin Goose". Its corrugated metal fuselage looked like a tin washboard, and his body seemed to crawl on the ground like the belly of a goose. The plane chosen by Lindbergh was the Ford TriMotor. According to Lindbergh, the Ford had more power and better maintenance than any other airplane.

Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  -US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA
Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902 (7) - Book Fly

Having three engines made flying on that plane safer than on other planes of that time. If one or maybe two engines stop running in flight, the TriMotor could land safely with only one of the two engines. The plane's cabin could accommodate a maximum of 10 passengers. The plane had been built to transport more people but Transcontinental Air Transport dismantled six seats to leave the place for a kitchen.

A very narrow corridor ran through the center of the passenger cabin. Next to each seat was a window covered with velvet curtains. Each passenger had their own reading lamp and also an electric lighter with an ashtray. The seats were adjustable to three positions and resembled more common splinters than the current seats of an airplane. The Ford TriMotor had a top speed of 110 miles per hour.

First Coast to Coast Flight: Inauguration Day in NYC 

 On July 7, 1929, transcontinental travel began. He initially offered a 48-hour coast-to-coast travel (night trains and day planes on several flights). The first Passengers had to board, first, a night train to take them to the airport in Columbus, Ohio (today is John Glenn International Airport), 850 miles away.

Ford Tri-Motor "City of New York" at hall NYC Pennsylvania station, - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight
Ford Tri-Motor "City of New York" at hall NYC Pennsylvania station, - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight 1929

At the NYC Pennsylvania station, a Ford Tri-Motor called City of New York was in the hall. He was taken for the occasion and was Christening by Amelia Earhart. After the speeches, passengers boarded The Airway Limited on Platform 15, and the train departed to Columbus  at 6:05 pm

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First Day:  New York to Waynoka

Because The city's Union Station was located in the city center, TAT built its own train station and terminal at the Columbus airport. Thus, the transfer from train to plane was faster and more comfortable for passengers.  It was a cloudy day with light rain that fell in Columbus on July 8, 1929. Passengers who arrived at the new Columbus Penn train station walked down a gangway to the Ford Tri-Motors aircraft.

The plan was for two Tri-Motors to take off at the same time and move together across the continent. The Ford Tri-Motor chosen were the so-called City of Columbus and the City of Wichita. 

Pennsylvania Railroad - Coast to Coast 48 hs. - Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  -US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA
Pennsylvania Railroad - Coast to Coast 48 hs

 

Who were the passengers on the first coast-to-coast flight in the USA?

The passengers on the City of Columbus Plane (2)

  • Colonel Edgar S. Correll (President, Stutz Motor Company, IN)
  • Paul Henderson. Jr. (Colonel Henderson's son)
  • Stay Brainerd (Associated Newspapers. NYC)
  • S.W. Higgins (Dennison Manufacturing Company, MA)
  • U. Grant Border (U.S. Border & Sons. NYC)
  • J.W. Brennan, (Central Traffic Manager. TAT)
  • Daniel M. Shafer (Chief of Passenger Transportation. Pennsylvania Railroad)
  • Albert A Garthwaite. (Vice President. Lee Tire Company. PA)

The passengers on the City of Wichita Plane  :

  • Charles Tice (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
  • Carl Larsen (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
  • William Chaplin (Associated Press. NYC)
  • Miss M.A. Salomon (Chamber of Commerce. Brooklyn. NY)
  • Mn. John T. Litch (Boston. MA)
  • E.E. Greiner (Springfield. OH) William James Bryant (Nation's Business. D.C.)
  • Mn. George P. Putnam (NYC) Mn. F.C. Kenney (Indianapolis. IN)

Carl Larsen and Charles, members of Fox Movietone, filmed the historic TAT inaugural trip across the United States. The film still exists and it's very interesting to view (here) this documented trip across the continent. 

After the two Ford Tri-Motor departed, Mr. T.B. Clement, the General Traffic Manager of Transcontinental Air Transport , hosted a breakfast in the TAT hangar. Important guests that attended the start of the inaugural flights and the celebration breakfast included

  • Henry Ford. ( Chairman of Ford Motor Company)
  • Eckel Ford (Henry Ford's  son);
  • William B. Mayo (Chief Engineer of Ford Motor Company);
  • Harvey Firestone (Firestone Tire Company).

Columbus Airport

Early in the morning , at the Columbus Airport (3), the passengers board a Ford Trimotor plane and fly to Waynoka - Oklahoma. The plane had to stop 4 times to refuel before arriving in Oklahoma. There they boarded another night train on the Santa Fe Railroad for a trip to Clovis, New Mexico. On the train they spent the night and arrived at the next airport.

Columbus Airport - Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism - indbergh Line
Columbus Airport - Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism - Lindbergh Line

Around noon, the TAT flight stops in St. Louis, where pilots who had flown from Columbus were replaced by a new flight crew. TAT limited the flight time of its pilots to no more than five hours in the air in a single day. A TAT pilot earned more than $ 12,000 a year, more than double the salaries that most pilots earned at that time.

St. Louis to Kansas City: Lunch on Board

In the stage of St. Louis to Kansas City the passengers were served lunch. Ford trimotor stabilized, the service on board served some aluminum trays with napkin and tablecloth. The food was chicken, cheese and egg salad sandwiches, a pickle and salt. A piece of cake, an apple and a banana were also served. To accompany the meals the option was milk or coffee.

In Kansas City there was another technical stop, where any nervous passenger had the option of making a train connection. From Kansas City, the air route followed the Santa Fe rail route to the next stop in Wichita. Leaving Wichita, the trip to Waynoka was only 117 flight miles.

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Samsonite Luggage
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Landing in Waynoka

At Landing in Waynoka, TAT passengers are driven by car to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe train station. There at dinner will be the Harvey House restaurant. The food was five stars;

  • Blue knitted oysters
  • Duck Salmi,
  • Prairie Chicken with Redcurrant Jam
  • Pickled lamb tongue.

At 8 pm, TAT service personnel accompanied passengers to a special railroad car (The Missionary) bound for Clovis. The train left Waynoka at 11 p.m. through western Oklahoma and northern Texas. He stopped in the cities of Woodward, Shattuck, Canadian, Miami and Amarillo. In Clovis, passengers had breakfast  in other  Harvey House, when they arrived at the City

Shedules Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight -
Shedules Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism

Second Day: Clovis to Los Angeles

First Coast to Coast Flight: From the Clovis train station, a car drove passengers to the Clovis terminal "Portair" five miles west of the city. The departure of the plane was scheduled for 8:10 AM. The plane took off and reached the height of 8,000 feet. Passengers expect a trip with three stopovers to refuel before reaching their final destination. The name of  Ford Tri-Motor is “City of Wichita,”

Albuquerque was the first stop on the second day of flight. After the stopover, a light lunch was served and the service was withdrawn before arriving at the Continental Division. The most dangerous part of the trip, the flight from Albuquerque to Kingman through Winslow, was also the most picturesque.

In the late afternoon, the TAT Ford Tri-Motor approaches through the Cajon Pass between the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains in California. Approaching Glendale Airport, their final destination, the plane slid over Pasadena, north of Los Angeles. Also about Hollywood and movie studios.

 

Part II :Inauguration Day in Los Angeles  - Two Air Crash in Five Months  -  TAT & Western Air Express - Ford Tri-Motor Today

 

Sources First Coast to Coast Flight 

  1. The Smithsonian Air & Space
  2. Flying In lingbergh Line - Robert F kirk 
  3. The Building of an Airport : Port Columbus Robert F kirk 
  4. Journal American Aviation Historical Society
  5. The Smithsonian  Ford Plane
  6. Liberty aviation museum.org
  7. EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902
  8. Palm Springs Air Museum
  9. Air Museum Guide

The Building of an Airport: Port Columbus: “America’s Greatest Air Harbor” 1929 de [Kirk, Robert F.]

Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: (Transcontinental Air Transport’S Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]
Ford Tri-Motor - Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: ( Transcontinental Air Transport   Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coast to Coast Travel: Inauguration Day in Los Angeles

The same day at Grand Central Air Terminal near Los Angeles, two Ford Tri-Motor 1929  were christened. The TAT Tri-Motors were the Ciry of Los Angeles and the City of Philadelphia. Mary Pidcford christened the City of Los Angeles, and Gloria Swanson christened the Ciry of Philadelphia.

A huge crowd of approximately 30,000 turned out for the christening and viewed the historic beginning of transcontinental service to the east.

Charles Lindbergh piloted the City of Los Angeles on its inaugural travel to the east. (2)

Maddux AirLine - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - Ford Tri-Motor T - Transcontinental Air Transport
Maddux AirLine - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - Ford Tri-Motor T - Transcontinental Air Transport

TAT - MADDUX Airline Brochure  - May 25, 1930 "Western Division" (ex-Maddux Air Lines)  Image from the collection of Bjorn Larsso

Passengers on the City of Los Angeles Plane:

  • A.L. Rocklcin (LA Examiner)
  • T. Delapp (LA lima)
  • Jack Scanlon (Los Angeles)
  • M.D. Schatrman (Los Angeles)
  • Thomas B. Eastland (San Francisco. Director TAT)
  • R.W. Millar (Los Angeles)
  • Anne Morrow Lindbergh (Wife of Charles Lindbergh)
  • Major C.C. Moseley (Vice President, TAT)
  • Dr. W.J. Furie (Long Beach. California)

The passengers on the City of Philadelphia Plane

  • Albert Hitchin (Insurance Broker, Los Angeles)
  • R.K. Rochester (Vice President, Pennsylvania Railroad)
  • Mrs. R.K. Rochester Charles Walker (Fox News, Los Angeles)
  • Miss Velva Darling (Los Angeles)
  • John B. Austin (President. Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles)
  • Turner Wills (Los Angeles)

Transcontinental Air Transport - US History of Tourism
Transcontinental Air Transport

Charles Lindbergh that day flew the plane "City of Los Angeles" to Winslow, Arizona. From there, the next day on July 9, Charles Lindbergh flew the City of Philadelphia, back to Los Angeles. With the return flight, traveled Amelia Earhart and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh.

A curiosity: Upon arrival in Los Angeles (Glendale) there was a second christening of the  Ford Trimotor 1929 City of Philadelphia. Again Gloria Swanson, movie star, christening for the second time the City of Philadelphia. Some 20,000 people attended the second christening of the plane that had just completed the first voyage of the transcontinental passenger airline.

During the first month of TAT ( Lindbergh Line) operations, 153 passengers traveled the entire route. Also 280 passengers made shorter trips between intermediate points. TAT reported that its passenger transport capacity index was 37 percent. 99.4 percent of scheduled miles were completed. The planes flew 113,240 of the planned 113,957 miles. The number of passengers and miles traveled increased during the following months.

Ford Tri-Motor 1929: Two Air Crash in Five Months

 

On September 3, 1929,Ford Tri-Motor 1929 5-AT-21B NC 9647 "City of San Francisco", westbound TAT flight crashed into Mt. Taylor in New Mexico. "All passengers and crew aboard died. The Associated Press said it was the first plane crash on a regular commercial land route. The September accident was the first of three serious accidents for TAT in the next five months. It was the first disaster of a commercial airline.

 

On January 19, 1930 TAT Flight Number 7, Ford Tri-Motor 5-AT-C crashed north of Oceanside, California. The plane encountered rain, low clouds, fog, and possibly engine problems, Flying from the races at Agua Caliente, near Tijuana, Mexico to Los Angeles.

The left wing struck the ground, slamming the aircraft into the ground, which subsequently caught fire. The pilots and all 14 passengers aboard died in the crash. Charles Lindbergh, as chairman of TAT technical committee, was involved in the investigation.

Ford Tri-Motor 1929 & Western Air Express

Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight 1929
Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight 1929

After the first accident many of the Transcontinental Air Transport passengers chose the train. TAT began offering more services on board, but they had no effect. The fall of the stock market in October 1929 plus the second accident, put Transcontinental Air Transport on the verge of Bankruptcy

 

The government offered airlines long-term mail contracts in exchange for buying larger and safer airplanes for passenger transport.Transcontinental Air Transport, which did not carry mail, merged with Western Air Express, which already had a contract with the government. The merger was announced on October 25, 1930. The company that later became TWA stopped operating its train service. From that moment on, the entire route began to fly with only one night stop in Kansas City..

 

US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - Ford Tri-Motor T
US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - Ford Tri-Motor 1929 T

Are Ford Tri Motors still flying?

Two Ford Trimotors are still being used by the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) to fly passengers on sightseeing tours : a 4 -AT-E, bought by the association after a crash and fully restored Also a 5-AT-B owned by the Liberty Aviation Museum. At present there are almost 18 Ford Trimotor among those that are in operation, restoration and exhibition in museums. We will deal with this later in another note-

 

Air Museum - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - Ford Tri-Motor T City of Wichita
Pic: Air Museum Guide - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - Ford Tri-Motor 1929  T City of Wichita (9)

.

Tips of  First Coast to Coast Flight:  US History of Tourism - TAT

  • The one-way fare from New York to Los Angeles was $ 352. It would be worth about $ 5,000 in 2019
  • The trip lasted 48 hours - Train  & Ford Trimotor
  • The height of the flight was 8,000 feet.
  • People made fun of the airline abbreviation (TAT) interpreting it as "Take A Train"
  • The trip was a hard physical endurance test
  • TAT was also called The Lindbergh Line

Sources First Coast to Coast Flight 

  1. The Smithsonian Air & Space
  2. Flying In lingbergh Line - Robert F kirk 
  3. The Building of an Airport : Port Columbus Robert F kirk 
  4. Journal American Aviation Historical Society
  5. The Smithsonian  Ford Plane
  6. Liberty aviation museum.org
  7. EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902
  8. Palm Springs Air Museum
  9. Air Museum Guide

The Building of an Airport: Port Columbus: “America’s Greatest Air Harbor” 1929 de [Kirk, Robert F.]

Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: (Transcontinental Air Transport’S Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]
Ford Tri-Motor  1929 - Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: ( Transcontinental Air Transport   Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Tags:  The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT - US History of Tourism - Ford Tri-Motor - Charles Lindbergh - Amelia Earhart - City of Los Angeles - City of Wichita - City of New York

 

Thomas Cook & Son in the History of Tourism

Thomas Cook and The first Organized Tourist Trip

Thomas Cook & Son History of Tourism. The founder grew up in a Baptist family and was a fervent believer, both traveling through his region as a missionary. I work as a cabinetmaker to earn money. Influenced by his experience as a missionary, he decided to be a teetotaler at age 25. He attributed part of the great social problems of the moment to alcohol consumption.

In a way, his participation in the anti-alcohol league helped him in his work success, since his first organized trip was for a group of 500 teetotalers in 1841, from Leicester to Loughborough, a distance of 11 miles. They paid a shilling each approximately U$S 3.05 today

Thomas Cook & Son History of Tourism. The founder grew up in a Baptist family and was a fervent believer, both traveling through his region as a missionary. I work as a cabinetmaker to earn money. Influenced by his experience as a missionary, he decided to be a teetotaler at age 25. He attributed part of the great social problems of the moment to alcohol consumption.
Thomas Cook & Son - History of Tourism

Trip to the International exhibition in Paris

He repeated the experience over and over, increasing the distance of travel and the risk of investment. In 1845 he dared with a trip of several days between cities. Tourists could visit Leicester, Nottinghan and Derby. Thomas Cook introduced a novelty: the ticket was accompanied by a travel guide, the first in history.

Luggage Samsonite Store

SAMSONITE Store - Top amazon products 2021
SAMSONITE Store - Top amazon products 2021

Thomas Cook Travel
Thomas Cook Travel

After 10 years, the company had already transcended the British borders. In 1855. Thomas Cook released his first organized tour of Europe for sale. On the occasion of the Universal Exhibition in Paris, he designed a trip with departure in the United Kingdom and stops in cities such as Cologne or Strasbourg. The route ended in Paris.

Thomas Cook & Son all Inclusive

The travel business includes packs with transfers, lodging and also food. I reach commercial agreements with railway companies, buses, hotels, restaurants and guides. Thomas Cook offered a high volume of clients and in return obtained attractive discounts, which allowed him to market his organized trips at low prices.

Thomas Cook History: The First Organized Cruise

Starting in 1864, he incorporated his 30-year-old son John Mason into the family business. Thomas Cook & Son reinvested its profits in the development of new businesses. As the tourism industry was barely developed, they always advanced with innovations.

travel check Thomas Cook & Son in the History of Tourism
Thomas Cook & Son - History of Tourism

In 1865 they opened the first travel agency in London, in a Fleet Street location. In 1875 they began to market their first cruise: a boat trip around Norway. The main attraction of the cruise was to see the midnight sun in the amazing North Cape.

Pet Carrier TSA
Pet Carrier TSA

Tourists Make the First Round the World Tour

In September 1872, a steamboat left London to cross the Atlantic. It was part of the first trip around the world. ’
 organized by Thomas Cook in which he himself participated despite being 63 years old. The trip lasted 222 days and covered almost 30,000 miles, arriving in Japan and the United States, on steam, and traveling through China and India.

He organized his famous Tour of the Nile in 1868, but there were no hotels, so tourists traveled in a large caravan, accompanied by 65 horses, 87 mules, tents, beds and tents.

Traveling around the world by Thomas Cook & Son

In 1888, the company had already established offices worldwide, including three in Australia and one in New Zealand. At the end of the 19th century, it was already possible to travel almost anywhere in the world. Another innovation was travelers checks. The company devised and marketed vouchers at the end of 1869 that were purchased at the company's agencies. With them you could pay at partner hotels. They could also be exchanged for money at their branches. Thomas Cook History

Nile Voyage Thomas Cook & Son in the History of Tourism
Nile Voyage Thomas Cook & Son History of Tourism

In the late 1920s, its founder's grandchildren sold the business to the Belgian owners of the Orient Express, but with the outbreak of World War II it was nationalized by the British Government in order to save it from possible Nazi occupation.

Columbia Store

Columbia Store on Amazon
Columbia Store on Amazon

Thomas Cook History: After WWII

In the postwar period, the company flourished again by offering vacation packages abroad, although over time it faced increasing competition and was privatized in the 1970s. In 1992 it was bought by the German bank Westdeutsche Landesbank.

In 2001 it was transferred to another German company, C&N Touristic AG, and stores were opened for the sale of tourist packages and the business abroad was expanded. In 2007, it merged with the MyTravel group. At the time of its closure it was the second European tour operator, only behind the Anglo-German group TUI.

Thomas Cook died at the age of 83 in 1892. The company had decades of success ahead of it. Until fierce competition and, above all, the Internet explosion led him to the bankruptcy in 2019

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