The History of Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Tourism in Ancient Greece and Rome: Historic Evolution of Tourism This is the first part of an investigation of the History of Tourism. The second part, Tourism in the Middle Ages can be read here Tourism is a series of trips made for pleasure or for commercial, professional or similar reasons, during which the absence of habitual residence is only temporary. Triumph Arch in Via Agrippa – Orange – (France) Modern tourism was born in the XIX century, as a …

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History of Tourism in Middle Ages

The Religious Tourism in the Middle Ages Fall of the Roman Empire History of Medieval Tourism – How did you travel in the Middle Ages?:The fall of the Roman Empire plunged the European continent into a period of great confusion and disorder. For a time there was also an almost permanent state of war between the barbarian chiefs, who had invaded the ancient Roman empire. This contributed to the weakening of all forms of centralized government power. History of Tourism …

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Thomas Cook & Son in the History of Tourism

Thomas Cook and The first Organized Tourist Trip

Thomas Cook & Son History of Tourism. The founder grew up in a Baptist family and was a fervent believer, both traveling through his region as a missionary. I work as a cabinetmaker to earn money. Influenced by his experience as a missionary, he decided to be a teetotaler at age 25. He attributed part of the great social problems of the moment to alcohol consumption.

In a way, his participation in the anti-alcohol league helped him in his work success, since his first organized trip was for a group of 500 teetotalers in 1841, from Leicester to Loughborough, a distance of 11 miles. They paid a shilling each approximately U$S 3.05 today

Thomas Cook & Son History of Tourism. The founder grew up in a Baptist family and was a fervent believer, both traveling through his region as a missionary. I work as a cabinetmaker to earn money. Influenced by his experience as a missionary, he decided to be a teetotaler at age 25. He attributed part of the great social problems of the moment to alcohol consumption.
Thomas Cook & Son - History of Tourism

Trip to the International exhibition in Paris

He repeated the experience over and over, increasing the distance of travel and the risk of investment. In 1845 he dared with a trip of several days between cities. Tourists could visit Leicester, Nottinghan and Derby. Thomas Cook introduced a novelty: the ticket was accompanied by a travel guide, the first in history.

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After 10 years, the company had already transcended the British borders. In 1855. Thomas Cook released his first organized tour of Europe for sale. On the occasion of the Universal Exhibition in Paris, he designed a trip with departure in the United Kingdom and stops in cities such as Cologne or Strasbourg. The route ended in Paris.

Thomas Cook & Son all Inclusive

The travel business includes packs with transfers, lodging and also food. I reach commercial agreements with railway companies, buses, hotels, restaurants and guides. Thomas Cook offered a high volume of clients and in return obtained attractive discounts, which allowed him to market his organized trips at low prices.

The First Organized Cruise

Starting in 1864, he incorporated his 30-year-old son John Mason into the family business. Thomas Cook & Son reinvested its profits in the development of new businesses. As the tourism industry was barely developed, they always advanced with innovations.

travel check Thomas Cook & Son in the History of Tourism
Thomas Cook & Son - History of Tourism

In 1865 they opened the first travel agency in London, in a Fleet Street location. In 1875 they began to market their first cruise: a boat trip around Norway. The main attraction of the cruise was to see the midnight sun in the amazing North Cape.

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Pet Carrier TSA

Tourists Make the First Round the World Tour

In September 1872, a steamboat left London to cross the Atlantic. It was part of the first trip around the world. ’
 organized by Thomas Cook in which he himself participated despite being 63 years old. The trip lasted 222 days and covered almost 30,000 miles, arriving in Japan and the United States, on steam, and traveling through China and India.

He organized his famous Tour of the Nile in 1868, but there were no hotels, so tourists traveled in a large caravan, accompanied by 65 horses, 87 mules, tents, beds and tents.

Traveling around the world by Thomas Cook & Son

In 1888, the company had already established offices worldwide, including three in Australia and one in New Zealand. At the end of the 19th century, it was already possible to travel almost anywhere in the world. Another innovation was travelers checks. The company devised and marketed vouchers at the end of 1869 that were purchased at the company's agencies. With them you could pay at partner hotels. They could also be exchanged for money at their branches.

Nile Voyage Thomas Cook & Son in the History of Tourism
Nile Voyage Thomas Cook & Son History of Tourism

In the late 1920s, its founder's grandchildren sold the business to the Belgian owners of the Orient Express, but with the outbreak of World War II it was nationalized by the British Government in order to save it from possible Nazi occupation.

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After WWII

In the postwar period, the company flourished again by offering vacation packages abroad, although over time it faced increasing competition and was privatized in the 1970s. In 1992 it was bought by the German bank Westdeutsche Landesbank.

In 2001 it was transferred to another German company, C&N Touristic AG, and stores were opened for the sale of tourist packages and the business abroad was expanded. In 2007, it merged with the MyTravel group. At the time of its closure it was the second European tour operator, only behind the Anglo-German group TUI.

Thomas Cook died at the age of 83 in 1892. The company had decades of success ahead of it. Until fierce competition and, above all, the Internet explosion led him to the bankruptcy in 2019

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◙ Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines 

A collaboration of Marty Martinez

The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.

From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God Philippine Resealed Coin

As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route.  Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.

Circulated coins,  were also circulated after 1828, which for different reasons, arrived on the island. It should be noted that the Spanish monetary system at that time was adopted by all American countries (including the United States and Canada). Also some countries of Africa, and it meant what today is the dollar-USA monetary system. Denominations of the currencies of the new countries were also made in Reals.

Peruvian Republic - Lima

Coins Resealed. by Fernando VII for its circulation in Manila (8 reales). resealed of 1828 on 8 reales of the Peruvian Republic, Lima, 1828, assayer JM

Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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Merrell Store on Amazon

Republic of Chile

 Chile Republic : Over 1 Peso  1834. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Peru - Lima

Philippine Currency 1833. Columns resealed. Republic of Peru. 8 reales. Lima. 1833.  Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4) assayer M

Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin


Bolivian Republic - Potosi

Bolivian Republic. 8 soles. Potosí. 1833. LM. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4)

Assayer LM

Republic of Bolivia - Coins Countermarked Philippines

 

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Nikon Store - Best Selling products 2021

Republic of Mexico - Guanajuato

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. Guanajuato. 1830. MJ. Researched by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1834-7). Assayer MJ

Mexican republic - Philippine Resealed Coin
Mexican Republic - Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Mexico - Durango

 Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. 1828. On an 8 reales of Durango of 1828. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines


See another resealed coins: Museu  Nacional D´Art de Catalunya

From 1810….

From 1810 the independentistas minted coins with types clearly differentiated from the Spaniards. As the American currencies of all securities circulated through the territory of the Philippines, the authorities realized the negative effect that these currencies could have there. Therefore, on October 13, 1828, the Captaincy General decreed that all coins should be resold with the following type:

On the obverse, the coat of arms of Spain with the legend; ENABLED BY KING N. S. D. FERN. Vii.

On the reverse, MANILA with the corresponding year that is almost always 1828.

see: Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

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Design of Coins - Assayers

Design was completed with a series of grooves engraved.  on the obverse die that in principle would erase any trace of Republican legend. This was not so, this first type is known as type I and the same were coined the year 1828 and the very rare of 1830. From the year 1829 we know a 8 escudos.

The reverse remained the same but from the obverse disappeared any legend or drawing leaving only the coat of arms. Dr. Pablo I. de Jesus de Manila has written a study on this series for which he has found about 400 different copies.

Clearing the Revolutionary - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Past On October 13, 1828, D. Mariano Ricafort, Captain General of the Philippine Islands, a division of the Viceroyalty of Mexico, issued an edict introducing a system of marking the weights and ounces of gold produced by the “insurrect provinces and revolutionary governments “Of the South American continent. Thus, infamous words, such as “Republic”, “Independent” and “Free”, were eliminated.

The heavy machinery of the mint smoothed the designs of the offending coins and attempted to eliminate any trace of the original coin by minting “Manila -1829” on one side and the Spanish coat of arms on the other, with the legend “Enabled by King N.S.D. Fernando VII “and surrounded both wedges by a wide sawed edge.

Medal Carlos III  1782 

José Gabriel Gil  Assayer

Carlos III of Spain - Philippine Resealed Coin
Carlos III of Spain Medal

Local authorities clung to the hope that with these methods they could prevent the spread of the announcement of “Union and Freedom” carried out nineteen years earlier by the rebel provinces of Río de la Plata.

  • “Union y Fuerza”, proclaimed ten years before By “Independence of Chile,” issued thirteen years earlier by Nueva Granada.
  • “Por la Virtud y la Justicia,” proclaimed a decade earlier by Peru,.
  • “Libre, Cresca, Fecundo” spread by the Central American Republic ( Guatemala ) only eight years ago , And the even more recent declaration of sovereignty of Bolivia “Libres por la Constitucion”.

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Circulation only in Phlipines

These coins did not circulate in Spain,  and they did until its replacement by a currency of the Kingdom that is shown below. The mint of Manila only coined throughout its history copper (between 1728 and 1835 and the year 1861). Because this weight, in quantity of six million pieces and with types equal to the hard ones of Puerto Rico of 1895, was carved in Madrid, and transported to the Philippines where it circulated until in 1904 it was withdrawn from circulation by the American authorities.

1861 - Inauguration of Manila's Mint House - Philipines

 1861 Isabel 2a Queen of Spain. Medal


With Alfonso XIII the last pieces destined to Ultramar are minted with the values ​​of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents of weight. In addition, the so-called “alfonsino weight” is emitted in two issues, one of 1897 destined to circulate in the Philippines and another one of 1895 to circulate in Puerto Rico.

The latter had a divider of 40 cents. The “alfonsino weight” is equivalent to the 5 pesetas  of the Metropolis. Alfonso XIII was king of Spain between 1886 and 1931, dying in the Roman exile in 1941.

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1868 Isabel 2a instead of II, Queen of Spain. Coins Countermarked Philippines

Coins Countermarked Philippines


Philipine Coin Manila 50 Cents 1880 - Alfonso XII 

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1880. Alfonso XII King of Spain. Coins Countermarked PhilippinesCoins Countermarked Philippines

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Alfonso XII  – Coined Manila 20 Cents 1885

Spain – Coined Manila 20 Cents in weight. 1885. SGV (Arturo Sandoval and Antonio García González, assayers, Remigio Vega Vega, judge of Balance). Coins Countermarked Philippines

Philippine Resealed Coin

GUAM - 1899 Philippine Resealed Coin

In the year 1899, to leave testimony of the occupation of the island, the admiral of the fleet American F. V. Green used a countermark on Philippine island weights that contained the word "GUAM" and the year of occupation

GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines
GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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US History of Tourism: First Coast to Coast Flight 1929 Part I

US History of Tourism - The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT -  Ford Tri-Motor

US History of Tourism: Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT

US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA.  

The Transcontinental Air Transport airline was like "The Lindbergh Line" and the idea began in the months after the 1927 transatlantic flight of Charles Lindbergh. The main sponsors of this commercial airline were:

STOKES COLLECTION 1934 American Classics / 16.5" x 11" . Ford Trimotor - Amazon.com Poster Vintage
Stokes Collection 1934 American Classics / 16.5" x 11" . Ford Trimotor - Amazon.com Poster Vintage

  • Charles Lindbergh,
  • Harold Bixby,
  • Henry Breckinridge,
  • Harry Knight
  • Commander William Robertson

They set out to unite the coasts of the Atlantic and the Pacific, between the cities of New York and Los Angeles

First Coast to Coast Flight 1929 Map - US History of Tourism: #USA #History

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US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA. 

TAT investors were: The Curtiss companies, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation, the Atchison Railroad, Topeka and Santa Fe plus five investment banks. In the spring of 1928, the group formed Transcontinental Air Transport, Inc., with Clement Melville Keys (Curtiss) as chairman and a board of directors composed of representatives of major investors.

Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Ford 5-AT Tri-Motor - US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA. 
History of Tourism: Ford Tri-Motor  5 AT  - Pic: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (1)

Charles Lindbergh Chairman of TAT Technical Committee

Charles Lindbergh became Chairman of the TAT Technical Committee. The Lindbergh Technical team designed the air route to follow. They chose 10 cities spaced between the coasts: Columbus, Ohio; Indianapolis, Ind .; St. Louis, Mo .; Kansas City, Kan .; Wichita, Kan .; Waynoka, Okla .; Clovis, NM; Albuquerque, NM; Winslow, Ariz .; and Glendale, California.

Transcontinental Air Transport bought or rented sites for airports. Pilots and mechanics were also hired, coordinated airline and rail schedules. They also directed the construction of runways, airport terminals and weather stations.

TAT tested the schedules of the stops between June 20 and July 6, 1929. Several pracytical trips and training with teams and personnel were made. Before the first client traveled, almost 50,000 test miles were recorded. Also transported 261 passengers through the different sections of the TAT route to make sure everything was ready.

US History of Tourism: Ford Trimotor 5-AT

The plane chosen by Lindbergh was the Ford TriMotor. According to Lindbergh, the Ford had more power and better maintenance than any other airplane. The Ford Tri-Motor was popularly dubbed the "Tin Goose". Its corrugated metal fuselage looked like a tin washboard, and his body seemed to crawl on the ground like the belly of a goose.

Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  -US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA
Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902 (7) - Book Fly

Having three engines made flying on that plane safer than on other planes of that time. If one or maybe two engines stop running in flight, the TriMotor could land safely with only one of the two engines. The plane's cabin could accommodate a maximum of 10 passengers. The plane had been built to transport more people but Transcontinental Air Transport dismantled six seats to leave the place for a kitchen.

A very narrow corridor ran through the center of the passenger cabin. Next to each seat was a window covered with velvet curtains. Each passenger had their own reading lamp and also an electric lighter with an ashtray. The seats were adjustable to three positions and resembled more common splinters than the current seats of an airplane. The Ford TriMotor had a top speed of 110 miles per hour.

First Coast to Coast Flight: Inauguration Day in NYC 

 On July 7, 1929, transcontinental travel began. He initially offered a 48-hour coast-to-coast travel (night trains and day planes on several flights). The first Passengers had to board, first, a night train to take them to the airport in Columbus, Ohio (today is John Glenn International Airport), 850 miles away.

Ford Tri-Motor "City of New York" at hall NYC Pennsylvania station, - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight
Ford Tri-Motor "City of New York" at hall NYC Pennsylvania station, - US History of Tourism - TAT - Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight 1929

At the NYC Pennsylvania station, a Ford Tri-Motor called City of New York was in the hall. He was taken for the occasion and was Christening by Amelia Earhart. After the speeches, passengers boarded The Airway Limited on Platform 15, and the train departed to Columbus  at 6:05 pm

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First Day:  New York to Waynoka

Because The city's Union Station was located in the city center, TAT built its own train station and terminal at the Columbus airport. Thus, the transfer from train to plane was faster and more comfortable for passengers.  It was a cloudy day with light rain that fell in Columbus on July 8, 1929. Passengers who arrived at the new Columbus Penn train station walked down a gangway to the Ford Tri-Motors aircraft.

The plan was for two Tri-Motors to take off at the same time and move together across the continent. The Ford Tri-Motor chosen were the so-called City of Columbus and the City of Wichita. 

Pennsylvania Railroad - Coast to Coast 48 hs. - Ford Tri-Motor - EAA Aviation Center  -US History of Tourism, first coast to coast flight: Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was an airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that merged in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA
Pennsylvania Railroad - Coast to Coast 48 hs

The list of passengers who boarded that day the Ford Tri-Motor aircraft were (2)

The passengers on the City of Columbus Plane:

  • Colonel Edgar S. Correll (President, Stutz Motor Company, IN)
  • Paul Henderson. Jr. (Colonel Henderson's son)
  • Stay Brainerd (Associated Newspapers. NYC)
  • S.W. Higgins (Dennison Manufacturing Company, MA)
  • U. Grant Border (U.S. Border & Sons. NYC)
  • J.W. Brennan, (Central Traffic Manager. TAT)
  • Daniel M. Shafer (Chief of Passenger Transportation. Pennsylvania Railroad)
  • Albert A Garthwaite. (Vice President. Lee Tire Company. PA)

The passengers on the City of Wichita Plane  :

  • Charles Tice (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
  • Carl Larsen (Fox Movietone News and Equipment)
  • William Chaplin (Associated Press. NYC)
  • Miss M.A. Salomon (Chamber of Commerce. Brooklyn. NY)
  • Mn. John T. Litch (Boston. MA)
  • E.E. Greiner (Springfield. OH) William James Bryant (Nation's Business. D.C.)
  • Mn. George P. Putnam (NYC) Mn. F.C. Kenney (Indianapolis. IN)

Carl Larsen and Charles, members of Fox Movietone, filmed the historic TAT inaugural trip across the United States. The film still exists and it's very interesting to view (here) this documented trip across the continent. 

After the two Ford Tri-Motor departed, Mr. T.B. Clement, the General Traffic Manager of Transcontinental Air Transport , hosted a breakfast in the TAT hangar. Important guests that attended the start of the inaugural flights and the celebration breakfast included

  • Henry Ford. ( Chairman of Ford Motor Company)
  • Eckel Ford (Henry Ford's  son);
  • William B. Mayo (Chief Engineer of Ford Motor Company);
  • Harvey Firestone (Firestone Tire Company).

Columbus Airport

Early in the morning , at the Columbus Airport (3), the passengers board a Ford Trimotor plane and fly to Waynoka - Oklahoma. The plane had to stop 4 times to refuel before arriving in Oklahoma. There they boarded another night train on the Santa Fe Railroad for a trip to Clovis, New Mexico. On the train they spent the night and arrived at the next airport.

Columbus Airport - Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism - indbergh Line
Columbus Airport - Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism - Lindbergh Line

Around noon, the TAT flight stops in St. Louis, where pilots who had flown from Columbus were replaced by a new flight crew. TAT limited the flight time of its pilots to no more than five hours in the air in a single day. A TAT pilot earned more than $ 12,000 a year, more than double the salaries that most pilots earned at that time.

St. Louis to Kansas City: Lunch on Board

In the stage of St. Louis to Kansas City the passengers were served lunch. Ford trimotor stabilized, the service on board served some aluminum trays with napkin and tablecloth. The food was chicken, cheese and egg salad sandwiches, a pickle and salt. A piece of cake, an apple and a banana were also served. To accompany the meals the option was milk or coffee.

In Kansas City there was another technical stop, where any nervous passenger had the option of making a train connection. From Kansas City, the air route followed the Santa Fe rail route to the next stop in Wichita. Leaving Wichita, the trip to Waynoka was only 117 flight miles.

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Landing in Waynoka

At Landing in Waynoka, TAT passengers are driven by car to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe train station. There at dinner will be the Harvey House restaurant. The food was five stars;

  • Blue knitted oysters
  • Duck Salmi,
  • Prairie Chicken with Redcurrant Jam
  • Pickled lamb tongue.

At 8 pm, TAT service personnel accompanied passengers to a special railroad car (The Missionary) bound for Clovis. The train left Waynoka at 11 p.m. through western Oklahoma and northern Texas. He stopped in the cities of Woodward, Shattuck, Canadian, Miami and Amarillo. In Clovis, passengers had breakfast  in other  Harvey House, when they arrived at the City

Shedules Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight -
Shedules Transcontinental Air Transport - First Coast to Coast Flight - US History of Tourism

Second Day: Clovis to Los Angeles

First Coast to Coast Flight: From the Clovis train station, a car drove passengers to the Clovis terminal "Portair" five miles west of the city. The departure of the plane was scheduled for 8:10 AM. The plane took off and reached the height of 8,000 feet. Passengers expect a trip with three stopovers to refuel before reaching their final destination. The name of  Ford Tri-Motor is “City of Wichita,”

Albuquerque was the first stop on the second day of flight. After the stopover, a light lunch was served and the service was withdrawn before arriving at the Continental Division. The most dangerous part of the trip, the flight from Albuquerque to Kingman through Winslow, was also the most picturesque.

In the late afternoon, the TAT Ford Tri-Motor approaches through the Cajon Pass between the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains in California. Approaching Glendale Airport, their final destination, the plane slid over Pasadena, north of Los Angeles. Also about Hollywood and movie studios.

 

Part II :Inauguration Day in Los Angeles  - Two Air Crash in Five Months  -  TAT & Western Air Express - Ford Tri-Motor Today

 

Sources First Coast to Coast Flight 

  1. The Smithsonian Air & Space
  2. Flying In lingbergh Line - Robert F kirk 
  3. The Building of an Airport : Port Columbus Robert F kirk 
  4. Journal American Aviation Historical Society
  5. The Smithsonian  Ford Plane
  6. Liberty aviation museum.org
  7. EAA Aviation Center  - 3000 Poberezny Road - Oshkosh, WI 54902
  8. Palm Springs Air Museum
  9. Air Museum Guide

The Building of an Airport: Port Columbus: “America’s Greatest Air Harbor” 1929 de [Kirk, Robert F.]

Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: (Transcontinental Air Transport’S Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]
Ford Tri-Motor - Flying the Lindbergh Line: Then & Now: ( Transcontinental Air Transport   Historic Aviation Vision) de [Kirk, Robert F.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Tags:  The Lindbergh Line - First Coast to Coast Flight - Transcontinental Air Transport - TAT - US History of Tourism - Ford Tri-Motor - Charles Lindbergh - Amelia Earhart - City of Los Angeles - City of Wichita - City of New York