Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines  A collaboration of Marty Martinez The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies. From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and …

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Ancient Mint Assayers in Spanish America

Mint Assayers in Colonial Times  

Places of Coinage, Essayers, Masters of the Mint  and Judges of Balance

Assayers in Spanish America

Each coin identifies the place of coinage and also the person responsible for the law of the coin (purity and weight) called the assayer. Usually the initials of the names were used and could be one or two assayers by minting. In the case of Philippines well into the nineteenth century also included the person responsible for balance. This is an example of how to identify these signs in coins.

Master mint Assayers - Argentine Ancient Coin 1815
Master Mint Assayers

Potosi: PS             Assayer  L Leandro Ozio  Value: ( Reales):

Assayers and Masters of Mints

The assayers were the artisans and those in charge and responsible for the law (purity) and weight of the metal, so they left their mark on the mint. These are some data on places of minting and initial assayers

Assayer =A  /  Reales= R

A8 R4 R2 R1 R1/2 R

Mexico  M

1772 -1777
1784 -1801

Peru LM or LIMAE


Potosi (Bolivia)   PS or PTS

JL18251825182518251823- 1825
 J  1824-182518251825  
 L 18151815181518151815

Santiago (Chile)  S


Chiloe (Chile)  Chi-loe  Over Potosi




Guatemala  G or NG


Nuevo Reino (Colombia)    

NR  Nuevo Reino Santa Fe de Bogotá 


Popayan (Colombia)  P



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Colonial Times Mint Assayers

Santiago (Chile) 1809  8 Reales FJ Francisco Rodriguez Brochero & Juan Maria de Bobadilla

As we have already had opportunity to comment, the death of a monarch had to wait a while for the arrival of its corresponding model of bust from the Peninsula. The case of Fernando VII is particular, its arrival to the throne in March of 1808 is accompanied with the Napoleonic invasion that forced the mints to make their own busts that we know as imaginary. In this case the dress is not Roman style but of time.


Santiago (Chile) 1809  8 Reales FJ Francisco Rodriguez Brochero & Juan Maria de Bobadilla
Santiago (Chile) 1809  8 Reales FJ


Santiago (Chile) 1790  8 Reales DA Domingo de Eyzaguirre y Agustin de Infante y Prado

Although Charles III had died on December 14, 1788, his bust continued to appear on the coins until 1791 at which time the official bust of the new monarch, Charles IV, was prepared. There are transitional pieces like the one in which only the ordinal of the king has been changed. The essay corresponded to Eyzaguirre and Infante responsible for the law in the first coinage of the new monarch.

Santiago (Chile) 1790  8 Reales DA

LIMA  (Peru).  8 reales.  IJ Ignacio Zenón de Gálvez y Juan Martínez de Roxas.

Very light lines of weight adjustment on the obverse. After the death of Carlos III in 1788 transicional types were minted with the ordinal IV waiting for the punzones of Madrid

  Master mint Assayers




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LIMA ( Peru )  1762  8 escudos (oro) JM  .José Rodríguez Carasa y Manuel Iglesias Abarca

Real de a ocho - Assayers in spanish america Master mint Assayers

LIMA. 8 Escudos.   1771 JM  .José Rodríguez Carasa y Manuel Iglesias Abarca

 Master mint Assayers

Peru Lima (1808) 8 Reales  JP Juan Martínez de Roxas y Pablo Cano Melgarejo

First year of the imaginary bust of the mint of Lima. The portrait did not last more than four years and was coined in different sizes being the corresponding to 1808 the largest by far. The reason for the need to make imaginary portraits based on paintings from the Kingdom of Spain is none other than the Napoleonic invasion. The portraits of the monarchs arrived late to the colonies, which is why the portraits of Fernando VII were called until 1812 "Imaginarios". The portrait on which this bust was based was made in America by a local artist and that is why it is called Fernando VII the Inca or also known as bust of Indian.

Real de a ocho -Master mint Assayers

Other, Idem Assayer, Lima 1823 Over mint of PERU LIBRE

Master mint Assayers

Idem 1819

Master mint Assayers
Master of Mint Assayers

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Leda and the Swan in Pompeii

Leda and the Swan in Pompeii City A group of archaeologists work in the Pompeii archaeological park in southern Italy. There was a spectacular erotic fresco in very good condition. It is the Greek myth of seduction, embodied in Leda and the swan. It is a unique and exceptional find, said the director of the archaeological park, Massimo Osanna, when announcing the discovery. According to Greek mythology, Leda was the wife of Tindareo of Sparta. While she was walking along …

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Jose Maria Cao Luaces : The Best Galician Cartoonist

Jose Maria Cao Luaces

The father of the Argentine  Cartoonist

He was a cartoonist, the most famous of Argentina. He was born in the town of Santa María de Cervo, Consello de Viveiro, Province of Lugo, (Galicia - Spain), on December 13, 1862 under the reign of Isabel II of Spain. Died in lanus State of Buenos Aires  on January 27, 1918.

The one Work in the Royal factory of porcelain of Sargadelos where his father worked, and closed this one in 1877. Later I go to work in a factory of earthenware  called Asturiana, in Gijón - Asturias. like assistant of decorator.


Manuel Braganza King of Portugal - Cartoon of Cao Luaces -1910
Manuel Braganza King of Portugal - Cartoon of Cao Luaces -1910


There he met the sculptor José María López Rodríguez. who taught him sculpture and drawing techniques. I work with the artist in the statues of David and Simon, who are in the altarpiece of the high altar of San Agustín..


Cao Luaces toon - caras & Caretas 1910
Cao Luaces toon - The Best Argentine Cartoonist- The Best Argentine Cartoonist


Later he moved to Madrid in order to continue specializing and worked in a porcelain company in that city. Cao Luaces directed the workshop of an establishment of ceramics and glassworks in La Coruña,. He also studied various careers in commerce, customs and telegraphs. He also collaborated with literary essays in several publications.


cartoon of Juan garro- caras y Caretas 1910 - Cao Luaces - The Best Argentine Cartoonist


The Emigration

In 1886, I pack their suitcases and emigrate to Buenos Aires - Argentina and his first job was to make cartoons on the street. In 1887 he was associated with a workshop of engravings. He was a teacher of a school and he collaborated in several magazines, among them, the most important, "El Sudamericano", where he was in charge of the portraits section.


Cao Luaces Cartoon - Spain: Juan Pérez Caballero y Ferrer and Others
Cao Luaces Cartoon - Spain: Juan Pérez Caballero y Ferrer and Others


One of his first caricatures caused a week in the Jail At that time the state of siege was in force and governed by President Julio A. Roca. In 1887 he was hired by the director of the Don Quijote Magazine, Eduardo Sojo. He knew Cao Luaces for his work in other graphic magazines.


Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist
Cao Luaces cartoon


Both were engaged in the task of ridiculing  and caricaturing government figures.  For those reasons they were persecuted and they knew the jail. They used pseudonyms to protect their identities, although it did not serve them much usefulness


07-05-1910 Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist
07-05-1910 Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist

Persecution and Jail of Cao Luaces

Political Violence and Attempted At that time when he worked for Don Quijote and apparently for a caricature of General Capdevila. Cao Luaces was imprisoned and confined in a prison.



For this reason the president of the Argentine Nation, General Roca, intervened to appease the spirits and the Cartoonist regained his freedom.


Caras y caretas Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist
Caras y caretas Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist

The same Don QuiJote was closed by the government. The newspaper Don Quijote was a supporter organ opposed to the national government: A political group called "radicalism" that, from 1890, emerged as a dissident voice in the person of its founder Leandro N Alem. It was an alternative to hegemony of the conservative parties that were ruling at that time.

 From that publication, humor is considered as a political tool. The founder of the Radical Party, Leandro N. Alem, maintained that "the revolution of 1890 was made by arms and cartoons"

 Caras y Caretas Magazine

Came from Uruguay, where the Spaniard Eustaquio Pellicer had started it in 1890 as a festive, literary, artistic and news weekly. In Buenos Aires, the director was Sixto. Alvarez (Fray Mocho) and the cartoonist Manuel Mayol. Cao Luaces drawings are found in the pages of this magazine

Caras y caretas Cao Luaces
Caras y caretas Cao Luaces NOV 1910


Foundation of the Eco of Galicia On February 7, 1892, Cao Luaces founded El Eco de Galicia. The same name that was published in Cuba years before. From there he insisted on the refounding of the Galician center of Buenos Aires, closed a year earlier. At the head of El Eco de Galicia was little time, selling it to the eight months of having founded.

Caras y caretas Cao Luaces NOV 1910
Caras y caretas Cao Luaces NOV 1910

Other works

Other works by Cao Luaces He also made a series of drawings of international personalities who acted in the 1914 war. And also drew the gaucho and scenes  from the Argentine Pampas.

When the Centennial of the May Revolution of 1810 arrived, he published cartoons in the magazine El Hogar (July 7, 1916). He ventured other plastic arts such as painting and made several important works such as his painting The Lautaro Lodge.

Julio Argentino Roca - Not Cao Work

Cao Luaces worked in Freemasonry and came to occupy a degree 33 in the regional Lanus). He lived in Lanus, at that time Municipal County of Avellaneda, State of Buenos Aires. Here collaborating with the Local County when founding a Cultural Society called "Mother Fraternity". He died in Lanús on January 27, 1918.


Opinion by Luis Seoane

The Painter & Artist made a biography of Cao where he said :

"The figure that he drew was perfectly molded, he adhered to the laws of chiaroscuro, to the retouching. But more began with his work for the drawing of this country a schematic concision from which we could cite numerous examples. When they were designated "the father of the Argentine cartoon" they affirmed a truth and we are sure that they did not refer so much to their fruitful work, as to their quality of that work"

"first it was Cao although his art had been developed in this nation. Castelao, our greatest humorist, thought so much and often conversations had what pleasure he was looking for as a child first in Argentina and then in Galicia the drawings of Cao. Certainly Castelao knew Cao much more than the drawings. Perhaps also many of his articles, essays and the thought that about Galicia Cao sustained his battle in the Galician collectivity."

All the images correspond to the private collection of corresponding to the magazine Caras y Caretas year 1910

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