◙ Collectible Coins: American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines

American Revolutionary Coins Countermarked in Philippines 

A collaboration of Marty Martinez

The circulation of the Philippines at the time of Spanish domination consisted of coin minted in other regions, mainly Potosi, Peru and Mexico, with the same denominations as in the rest of the colonies.

From the independence of the American colonies, there was a retraction in the circulating in this zone. For this reason should have appealed to a very curious policy: the reselling of currencies. Potosí, Peru and Mexico were alternated several times by Independents and Spaniards between 1810 and 1828.

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God

1866 2 Pesos Isabel the Second by the Grace of God Philippine Resealed Coin

As a result, the independentist minted their own currencies (Potosi: Bolivia and Argentina), Lima (Peru) and Mexico. Apparently when the Spaniards occupied these places again, they also appropriated the new mints, some of which were sent to the Philippines by the Pacific route.  Thus, circulated from 1828 Peruvian independence coins, Mexican and Bolivian in Philippine, with the Spanish denominations.

Circulated coins,  were also circulated after 1828, which for different reasons, arrived on the island. It should be noted that the Spanish monetary system at that time was adopted by all American countries (including the United States and Canada). Also some countries of Africa, and it meant what today is the dollar-USA monetary system. Denominations of the currencies of the new countries were also made in Reals.

Peruvian Republic - Lima

Coins Resealed. by Fernando VII for its circulation in Manila (8 reales). resealed of 1828 on 8 reales of the Peruvian Republic, Lima, 1828, assayer JM

Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Peru - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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Republic of Chile

 Chile Republic : Over 1 Peso  1834. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Chile- Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Peru - Lima

Philippine Currency 1833. Columns resealed. Republic of Peru. 8 reales. Lima. 1833.  Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4) assayer M

Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin
Republic of Peru - Philippine Resealed Coin


Bolivian Republic - Potosi

Bolivian Republic. 8 soles. Potosí. 1833. LM. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1832-4)

Assayer LM

Republic of Bolivia - Coins Countermarked Philippines

 

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Republic of Mexico - Guanajuato

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. Guanajuato. 1830. MJ. Researched by Fernando VII in Manila for circulation in the Philippines (1834-7). Assayer MJ

Mexican republic - Philippine Resealed Coin
Mexican Republic - Philippine Resealed Coin


Republic of Mexico - Durango

 Republic of Mexico. 8 reales. 1828. On an 8 reales of Durango of 1828. Resealed by Fernando VII in Manila for its circulation in the Philippines (1834-7).

Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines
Republic of Mexico - Coins Countermarked Philippines


See another resealed coins: Museu  Nacional D´Art de Catalunya

From 1810….

From 1810 the independentistas minted coins with types clearly differentiated from the Spaniards. As the American currencies of all securities circulated through the territory of the Philippines, the authorities realized the negative effect that these currencies could have there. Therefore, on October 13, 1828, the Captaincy General decreed that all coins should be resold with the following type:

On the obverse, the coat of arms of Spain with the legend; ENABLED BY KING N. S. D. FERN. Vii.

On the reverse, MANILA with the corresponding year that is almost always 1828.

see: Numismatic: Argentine Ancient Coins 1813-1860

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Design of Coins - Assayers

Design was completed with a series of grooves engraved.  on the obverse die that in principle would erase any trace of Republican legend. This was not so, this first type is known as type I and the same were coined the year 1828 and the very rare of 1830. From the year 1829 we know a 8 escudos.

The reverse remained the same but from the obverse disappeared any legend or drawing leaving only the coat of arms. Dr. Pablo I. de Jesus de Manila has written a study on this series for which he has found about 400 different copies.

Clearing the Revolutionary - Coins Countermarked Philippines

Past On October 13, 1828, D. Mariano Ricafort, Captain General of the Philippine Islands, a division of the Viceroyalty of Mexico, issued an edict introducing a system of marking the weights and ounces of gold produced by the “insurrect provinces and revolutionary governments “Of the South American continent. Thus, infamous words, such as “Republic”, “Independent” and “Free”, were eliminated.

The heavy machinery of the mint smoothed the designs of the offending coins and attempted to eliminate any trace of the original coin by minting “Manila -1829” on one side and the Spanish coat of arms on the other, with the legend “Enabled by King N.S.D. Fernando VII “and surrounded both wedges by a wide sawed edge.

Medal Carlos III  1782 

José Gabriel Gil  Assayer

Carlos III of Spain - Philippine Resealed Coin
Carlos III of Spain Medal

Local authorities clung to the hope that with these methods they could prevent the spread of the announcement of “Union and Freedom” carried out nineteen years earlier by the rebel provinces of Río de la Plata.

  • “Union y Fuerza”, proclaimed ten years before By “Independence of Chile,” issued thirteen years earlier by Nueva Granada.
  • “Por la Virtud y la Justicia,” proclaimed a decade earlier by Peru,.
  • “Libre, Cresca, Fecundo” spread by the Central American Republic ( Guatemala ) only eight years ago , And the even more recent declaration of sovereignty of Bolivia “Libres por la Constitucion”.

Coins Countermarked Philippines: Circulation only in Phlipines

These coins did not circulate in Spain,  and they did until its replacement by a currency of the Kingdom that is shown below. The mint of Manila only coined throughout its history copper (between 1728 and 1835 and the year 1861). Because this weight, in quantity of six million pieces and with types equal to the hard ones of Puerto Rico of 1895, was carved in Madrid, and transported to the Philippines where it circulated until in 1904 it was withdrawn from circulation by the American authorities.

1861 - Inauguration of Manila's Mint House - Philipines

 1861 Isabel 2a Queen of Spain. Medal


With Alfonso XIII the last pieces destined to Ultramar are minted with the values ​​of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents of weight. In addition, the so-called “alfonsino weight” is emitted in two issues, one of 1897 destined to circulate in the Philippines and another one of 1895 to circulate in Puerto Rico.

The latter had a divider of 40 cents. The “alfonsino weight” is equivalent to the 5 pesetas  of the Metropolis. Alfonso XIII was king of Spain between 1886 and 1931, dying in the Roman exile in 1941.

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1868 Isabel 2a instead of II, Queen of Spain. Coins Countermarked Philippines

Coins Countermarked Philippines


Philipine Coin Manila 50 Cents 1880 - Alfonso XII 

Spain – Coined Manila. 50 cents in weight. 1880. Alfonso XII King of Spain. Coins Countermarked PhilippinesCoins Countermarked Philippines

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Alfonso XII  – Coined Manila 20 Cents 1885

Spain – Coined Manila 20 Cents in weight. 1885. SGV (Arturo Sandoval and Antonio García González, assayers, Remigio Vega Vega, judge of Balance). Coins Countermarked Philippines

Philippine Resealed Coin

GUAM - 1899 Philippine Resealed Coin

In the year 1899, to leave testimony of the occupation of the island, the admiral of the fleet American F. V. Green used a countermark on Philippine island weights that contained the word "GUAM" and the year of occupation

GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines
GUAM - Coins Countermarked Philippines

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Ancient Mint Assayers in Spanish America

Mint Assayers in Colonial Times  

Places of Coinage, Essayers, Masters of the Mint  and Judges of Balance

Assayers in Spanish America

Each coin identifies the place of coinage and also the person responsible for the law of the coin (purity and weight) called the assayer. Usually the initials of the names were used and could be one or two assayers by minting. In the case of Philippines well into the nineteenth century also included the person responsible for balance. This is an example of how to identify these signs in coins.

Master mint Assayers - Argentine Ancient Coin 1815
Master Mint Assayers

Potosi: PS             Assayer  L Leandro Ozio  Value: ( Reales):

Assayers and Masters of Mints

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Jose Maria Cao Luaces : The Best Galician Cartoonist

Jose Maria Cao Luaces

The father of the Argentine  Cartoonist

He was a cartoonist, the most famous of Argentina. He was born in the town of Santa María de Cervo, Consello de Viveiro, Province of Lugo, (Galicia - Spain), on December 13, 1862 under the reign of Isabel II of Spain. Died in lanus State of Buenos Aires  on January 27, 1918.

The one Work in the Royal factory of porcelain of Sargadelos where his father worked, and closed this one in 1877. Later I go to work in a factory of earthenware  called Asturiana, in Gijón - Asturias. like assistant of decorator.

 

Manuel Braganza King of Portugal - Cartoon of Cao Luaces -1910
Manuel Braganza King of Portugal - Cartoon of Cao Luaces -1910

 

There he met the sculptor José María López Rodríguez. who taught him sculpture and drawing techniques. I work with the artist in the statues of David and Simon, who are in the altarpiece of the high altar of San Agustín..

 

Cao Luaces toon - caras & Caretas 1910
Cao Luaces toon - The Best Argentine Cartoonist- The Best Argentine Cartoonist

 

Later he moved to Madrid in order to continue specializing and worked in a porcelain company in that city. Cao Luaces directed the workshop of an establishment of ceramics and glassworks in La Coruña,. He also studied various careers in commerce, customs and telegraphs. He also collaborated with literary essays in several publications.

 

cartoon of Juan garro- caras y Caretas 1910 - Cao Luaces - The Best Argentine Cartoonist

 

The Emigration

In 1886, I pack their suitcases and emigrate to Buenos Aires - Argentina and his first job was to make cartoons on the street. In 1887 he was associated with a workshop of engravings. He was a teacher of a school and he collaborated in several magazines, among them, the most important, "El Sudamericano", where he was in charge of the portraits section.

 

Cao Luaces Cartoon - Spain: Juan Pérez Caballero y Ferrer and Others
Cao Luaces Cartoon - Spain: Juan Pérez Caballero y Ferrer and Others

 

One of his first caricatures caused a week in the Jail At that time the state of siege was in force and governed by President Julio A. Roca. In 1887 he was hired by the director of the Don Quijote Magazine, Eduardo Sojo. He knew Cao Luaces for his work in other graphic magazines.

 

Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist
Cao Luaces cartoon

 

Both were engaged in the task of ridiculing  and caricaturing government figures.  For those reasons they were persecuted and they knew the jail. They used pseudonyms to protect their identities, although it did not serve them much usefulness

 

07-05-1910 Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist
07-05-1910 Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist

Persecution and Jail of Cao Luaces

Political Violence and Attempted At that time when he worked for Don Quijote and apparently for a caricature of General Capdevila. Cao Luaces was imprisoned and confined in a prison.

 

 

For this reason the president of the Argentine Nation, General Roca, intervened to appease the spirits and the Cartoonist regained his freedom.

 

Caras y caretas Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist
Caras y caretas Cao Luaces toon - The Best Galician - Argentine Cartoonist

The same Don QuiJote was closed by the government. The newspaper Don Quijote was a supporter organ opposed to the national government: A political group called "radicalism" that, from 1890, emerged as a dissident voice in the person of its founder Leandro N Alem. It was an alternative to hegemony of the conservative parties that were ruling at that time.

 From that publication, humor is considered as a political tool. The founder of the Radical Party, Leandro N. Alem, maintained that "the revolution of 1890 was made by arms and cartoons"

 Caras y Caretas Magazine

Came from Uruguay, where the Spaniard Eustaquio Pellicer had started it in 1890 as a festive, literary, artistic and news weekly. In Buenos Aires, the director was Sixto. Alvarez (Fray Mocho) and the cartoonist Manuel Mayol. Cao Luaces drawings are found in the pages of this magazine

Caras y caretas Cao Luaces
Caras y caretas Cao Luaces NOV 1910

 

Foundation of the Eco of Galicia On February 7, 1892, Cao Luaces founded El Eco de Galicia. The same name that was published in Cuba years before. From there he insisted on the refounding of the Galician center of Buenos Aires, closed a year earlier. At the head of El Eco de Galicia was little time, selling it to the eight months of having founded.

Caras y caretas Cao Luaces NOV 1910
Caras y caretas Cao Luaces NOV 1910

Other works

Other works by Cao Luaces He also made a series of drawings of international personalities who acted in the 1914 war. And also drew the gaucho and scenes  from the Argentine Pampas.

When the Centennial of the May Revolution of 1810 arrived, he published cartoons in the magazine El Hogar (July 7, 1916). He ventured other plastic arts such as painting and made several important works such as his painting The Lautaro Lodge.

Julio Argentino Roca - Not Cao Work

Cao Luaces worked in Freemasonry and came to occupy a degree 33 in the regional Lanus). He lived in Lanus, at that time Municipal County of Avellaneda, State of Buenos Aires. Here collaborating with the Local County when founding a Cultural Society called "Mother Fraternity". He died in Lanús on January 27, 1918.

 

Opinion by Luis Seoane

The Painter & Artist made a biography of Cao where he said :

"The figure that he drew was perfectly molded, he adhered to the laws of chiaroscuro, to the retouching. But more began with his work for the drawing of this country a schematic concision from which we could cite numerous examples. When they were designated "the father of the Argentine cartoon" they affirmed a truth and we are sure that they did not refer so much to their fruitful work, as to their quality of that work"

"first it was Cao although his art had been developed in this nation. Castelao, our greatest humorist, thought so much and often conversations had what pleasure he was looking for as a child first in Argentina and then in Galicia the drawings of Cao. Certainly Castelao knew Cao much more than the drawings. Perhaps also many of his articles, essays and the thought that about Galicia Cao sustained his battle in the Galician collectivity."

All the images correspond to the private collection of traveling-cook.com corresponding to the magazine Caras y Caretas year 1910

Gold Tower - Sevilla - Spain - Ancient Ad - caras y Caretas 1910 Argentine Magazine #spain

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