Medieval Treadwheel Crane in Cathedral of Strasbourg
We visited the Cathedral of Strasbourg
The Cathedral of Strasbourg was the first cathedral of Germany (or Kingdom of Germania). Until the arrival of Louis XIV in 1681 and his minister of the war, the Marquess of Louvois that camped in the environs of Strasbourg and forced their submission to the French monarchy the 30 of September of 1681.
The Cathedral was delivered by the same Luis XIV The head of the Catholic bishopric of Strasbourg, Egon de Furstenberg. Absent from the city for almost 150 years, that way ended the period as an independent city.
Do you want to travel to France by car but have no idea what to do first?
What is necessary to travel around France and enjoy it, without having a nervous breakdown?
Do you go to another country in Europe and have to cross France by road?
Will you need to have an car accident lawyer on standby in case you’re involved in an accident?
Okay. The first thing that is needed is a lot of money. If you have it, stop reading and book a luxury hotel here. This post is not for you.
Now, if you have a more limited budget. This is the right place
Here we go
Know what are the rules of circulation in France
If you have ever driven in any foreign country or if it is the first time you do it, you should know that France is a country where you travel in a similar way as in the United States of America. The rules that you must respect are very similar
By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France,Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.
Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe(both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%).
Travelers on the Rise Every Year
The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”
The Saxon Switzerland National Park (Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz) is southeast of Dresden, and is part of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, up to the Czech Republic. The surface you are protected is 38,000 hectares of rock formations in the form of towers, originated by the Elbe River, which travelers who make the journey Dresden – Prague can see and be amazed
The Saxon Switzerland (Sächsische Schweiz), also known as the Elbsandstein hill (Elbsandsteingebirge), is located in the easternmost part of the federal state of Saxony that borders the Czech Republic. On the other side of the border the mountain of the Elbsandstein continues and bears the name of Switzerland Bohemia (Ceske Svycarsko).
The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.
Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire
In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.
A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.
The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.
However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?
Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist
The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.
The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.
Marco Vitruvio Polión : Roman Crane & Hoist Architect
(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )
Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.
In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.
As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.
Traveling is to reach a place and travel its streets, its landscapes and its monuments. But traveling to Pamplona – Spain – during the San Fermin festival is a unique experience.
The party begins on July 6 at noon, when the chupinazo (or Txupinazo) is launched from the Balcony of the City Council. An ocean of red handkerchiefs welcomes one of the most popular parties in the world between the 6th and the 14th of July.
What the hell is the Chupinazo?
It is the firing of a rocket from the City Hall by an authority, and the beginning of the party. But the good is not in this but in what happens in the square.
A lot of crowded people who can not move almost, start uncorking all kinds of drinks. And also to shout and celebrate. Much of the drink ends up in the clothes or on the floor. The crowd moves in waves. There is no place to stoop.
The experience is quite strong. Also for the time it is very hot so this cocktail is completed when from the balconies they throw buckets of water to the public.
Tips for surviving a Chupinazo
It can not be accessed with glass containers. You can get drinks like wine or champagne in plastic containers. Apart from this, the police control that it is carried out, for the safety of all.
The clothes to wear: White with a red handkerchief.
Wear comfortable shoes. Keep in mind that in the agglomeration the stomps are the rule.
Clothes that are worn will be discarded. Heat, sweat, alcocholicas drinks, buckets of water, food. All that and more will remain in the clothes. It’s a festive but wet climate
If you suffer the agglomerations do not even think of going. From noon until 2 PM it is almost suffocating.
If you have a camera or smartphone that is waterproof and better IP 69. Otherwise it will be destroyed
DO NOT go with children. It’s very dangerous
All the things that you want to carry like documents, money, credit cards, car keys, will invariably be lost. If you need to lose something this is the ideal place. If something falls it is lost. There is no possibility of collecting it.
Usually there can be some person or with some blows, although normally there are no injured of consideration
All people will enjoy and have fun. Respect and be respected
San Fermin 2019
Every year thousands of people from all over the world come to Pamplona (Spain) to enjoy the San Fermin festival. It begins with the Txupinazo but in the days that follow there are many activities. The streets are filled with bands of music, people, rocks and all that is paralyzed at the time of the Encierro (confinement).
The Encierro (confinement)
Between the slope of Santo Domingo and the alley that leads to the bullring, this show takes place. It lasts no more than five minutes and the route is half a mile (800 meters). Every day at eight in the morning there is a Encierro
The Encierro (confinement) consists of carrying six bulls that are going to be fought in the afternoon in the bullring. Six bulls or mansos also participate that guide the fighting bulls also to calm them until they reach their destination. The people who run in front of the bulls are experienced people, although novices participate every year
Each confinement is different. If it is clean and fast it will last three minutes, intense and showy, enough to observe the exploits of the almost professional runners and the clumsiness of the novices and the imprudence of those who ignore the rules of the race.
For children there are l parties with different activities such as puppets and puppets, also presentations of dances, street theaters and recitals
In the streets there are musical performances for all tastes, street music is constant in different places to sing and dance, with international bands and performers, jazz concerts and modern music.
The Party Was Over
The final day is celebrated with many dances and music, the last outing of giants and big heads is performed. Also the last bull run and eighth bullfight. At midnight of July 14 the closing of the party with fireworks is announced in the Town Hall Square. The audience gathers and taking off the red scarves, they sing the song Pobre de Mí showing the sadness for the end of the best festivals in the world : San Fermin. Do not forget to check the best travel gadgets to enjoy the Chupinazo and the San Fermin Festival
During all the holidays you can also rent balconies to witness all the events.
Cod is the typical dish of Portugal. It is consumed in many ways and here we present the most traditional recipe. It is consumed throughout Portugal but especially for those who visit Lisbon and Oporto you can not miss it.
Two cloves of garlic are peeled and thinly sliced and fried over medium heat in a frying pan with a finger of olive oil. Before the garlic reaches color, it is removed from the oil. Right there they will cook the cod and the potatoes.
To do this, flour four loins of cod and fry them “back and forth”, so that they are lightly cooked. Then, they are placed on a baking tray. Peel a large potato and cut it into thin slices. You also have to peel and cut an onion into thin slices to put them in the pan with the garlic-scented olive oil and the cod juices. Cover and let them cook over low heat for 15 minutes. Once the potato and onion are done, drain it.
Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire. You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes
Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Costs in denarii
In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62 Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29 Per passenger in a car: 2778.04
Cartago Nova to Rome
Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain) to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Same route as the previous one but in winter
Londinium to Rome in winter and summer
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator: from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route
29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.
A Little History of Roman Roads
The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before. He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire. The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.
The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative. The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire
Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering. See image gallery
Lakes, cliffs, valleys and much more. The European country has a natural beauty that is worth discovering. If Ireland is part of your next trip to Europe, you can not miss any of these places.
Located in the Atlantic, 13 kilometers southwest of Valentia Island, in the County of Kerry, Skellig Michael was chosen by J.J Abrams (Director of Star Wars: The Force Awakens) for the course of the new story. Well-known within the archaeological world, on the edge of some amazing cliffs that the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw described as “part of our world of dreams”, stands one of the best preserved Christian archaeological sites in the world, which were named as Patrimony World of Humanity by Unesco, in 1996.
You can know the history of a building through the works of its builders. This is the History of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau.
The castle we know today was built on the demolition of an old fortress and a fortified mill owned by the Marques family. From that time only the tribute tower that was modified in the style of the time and its new owners survives. It was built by Thomas Bohier, Intendant General of Finance of King Francisco I of France between 1513 and 1521. The main part is rectangular (50 x 55 meters) where the hallways and rooms are. In charge of overseeing the construction was his wife Katherine Briçonnet, since her husband was busy with the matter in court.
Gardens and architects of the castle of chenonceau
At the death of Mr. Thomas Bohier the crown ordered an audit of the kingdom’s finances. The results were charges against Thomas Bohier for misappropriating funds against the crown, for which his assets were expropriated. The crown recovered the royal dominion over the castle and at the same time King Francisco I gave it to his favorite Diana de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois.
As of that moment the destiny of the Chenonceau castle was marked by the presence of six more women. Here we detail them and the brands that they printed until today, the most visited castle in France.
Diana de Poitiers 1499 – 1566
King Henry II gave the Chateau de Chenonceau to his favorite, Diana de Poitiers in 1547. Diana commissioned Pacello da Mercoliano to design and build the gardens, which were the most beautiful of that time. The architect Philibert de l’Orme was entrusted with the task of building a bridge over the cher river in order to extend the gardens to the other shore. Diana de Poitiers managed to get Francisco I of France to settle in the place next to the whole court.
Henry II, King of France, died of injuries caused accidentally while participating in a tournament in 1559. Catherine de Médicis, wife of the deceased monarch, became the regent of the Kingdom of France, since her children were younger than age. Catherine forced Diana de Poitiers to cede the property of the castle to the crown in exchange for another nearby Chateau: Chaumont-sur-Loire. It expanded the existing gardens and improved the building’s body with reforms.
It was at that time (1576-1577) that the double-story gallery where the parties were organized was built by one of the architects of the Castle of Chenonceau: Jean Bullant. The gallery was built on the bridge and is the aspect that can be seen today. From the green cabinet being regent, Catherine de ‘Medici was in charge of the affairs of the Kingdom of France.
It should be noted that the original plans and designs of the gallery belonged to the architect Philibert de l’Orme, who had built the bridge. The gallery is 60 meters long and 6 meters wide. It has 18 Windows, floor of mosaics of tuff and slate, shaped like a chessboard. It was inaugurated in 1577 during the celebrations organized by Catherine de Médicis in honor of her son King Henry III of France.
Luisa de Lorraine 1553 – 1601
Henry III King of France and son of Catherine de Médicis, died in 1589. His wife Luisa de Lorraine retired to the castle of Chenonceau wearing the usual white mourning (label of the time). He lived until his death in the castle almost without leaving it. After Luisa de Lorena there was no more presence of the Crown of France in Chenonceau. It was already in private hands. By inheritance of Luisa de Lorraine the castle was inherited by César de Vendôme and his wife, Francesca de Lorraine, Duchess of Vendôme. For the next 100 years, it was inherited through the Valois family.
Louise Dupin 1706 – 1799
In 1720 it was bought by the Duke of Bourbon who sold them works of art and statues of Chenonceau. Some of them went to the Palace of Versailles. In the summer of 1733, Claude Dupin bought the castle of Chenonceau from the Duke of Bourbon. His wife, Louise Dupin in organized meetings and gatherings with writers, poets and scientists. Voltaire and Rosseau were regular. During the French Revolution and under its administration, Chenonceau was preserved.
Marguerite Pelouze bought the Château de Chenonceau in 1867, which at that time had 136 hectares of land. I buy it at 850,000 francs. Then he decided to restore the castle as in the time of Diana de Poitiers. The works were carried out from 1867 to 1878 by the architect Félix Roguet. During this restoration almost all the changes made by Catherine de Médicis were eliminated.
In 1879, Claude Debussy joined the chenonceau orchestra as a pianist, with the purpose of completing the castle’s small chamber orchestra. Debussy spends almost all that summer in Chenonceau. One thinks that the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Gustave Deloye, was the author of the caryatids (Column in the form of feminine sculpture) of the castle.
In 1888, Marguerite Pelouze, already separated from her husband, filed for bankruptcy and sold the Chenonceau castle. Acquired by Crédit Foncier, and sold in 1891 to Mr. José Émilio Terry, deputy of Cuba in the Spanish Cortes. His family will retain the property of castilool until 1913
Simonne Menier 1881 – 1972
The Terry family in 1913 sells Chenonceau to industrial Henri Menier (1853-1913). The Menier family is the owner of the castle today. During the First World War, a hospital for the war-wounded was set up in Chenonceau, funded by Mr. Gaston Menier (1880-1933). Simone Menier, wife of Georges, as head nurse, administered the hospital that installed 120 beds in two of the Galeries of the castle.
In a room in the castle of Chenonceau X-ray machines were adapted an X-ray machine. Also 2,254 soldiers were treated at that hospital during WWI. After the war, the equipment was dismantled and stored for years. Decades later in an auxiliary room of the castle, the hospital was assembled again and turned into a museum
Military Hospital of the Chenonceau Castle
Second World War The main gallery, the covered bridge that crosses the river Cher, was used during the Second World War by the French resistance. The castle was used for people to escape to Free France, taking advantage of the fact that it was on the border. It turns out that south entrance faced France Vichy “free”. and the rest of the castle was in the area occupied by Nazi Germany.
The castle during World War II suffered some damages by bombing of both sides, damaging in a total way the windows and vitreaux. These stained glass windows were repaired after the fight was over.
There were several illustrious visitors after its opening to the public in 1952. Among them we can mention the Queen of England Elizabeth II, her son Carlos and Diana Diana, Princess of Wales. Also the president of the United States Harry Truman visited Chemonceau.
In the Castle shop you can buy souvenirs of the visit, books and vintage posters
Summing up The architects of the Castle of Chenonceau, were:
Felix Roguet Philibert de l’Orme Jean Bullant Pacello da Mercoliano
The cranes of wheel ( or Treadwheel Cranes) were used by architects and engineers from the times of the Romans. Probably some stopped being used only at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a detail of those that still exist.
Some are original and have a thousand years of antiquity. A few others were rebuilt. All are worth knowing and if possible visit them.
Beverley Minster is an English parish church located in Beverley – East Yorkshire. It is undoubtedly one of the largest parish churches in England, being larger than some English cathedrals. It is considered a masterpiece of Gothic art. Also called Minster because in ancient times it was the church of a monastery.
Construction work began in 1225 and probably lasted almost 200 years. The twin towers of the western façade inspired the design of the present Westminster Abbey – London.
The building was able to survive after the dissolution of the monasteries, between 1536 and 1540, decreed by King Henry VIII of England. The current building retains almost everything except the chapter house.
To conclude, we will say that the wheel crane is placed on the vault of the central tower, and was driven by two people. The visit to the tower where the medieval wheel crane is done is through guided tours on Saturdays at 11am.
There are other Treadwheel cranes in Europe. One of them is in the Cathedral of Strasbourg – France, Here I could see the note.
Ajaccio is not only the birthplace of Napoleon but also has its own attractions and with great charm. A historic center where you can walk through ancient streets where colorful houses abound.
A walls of an ancient citadel. An ideal place to see all the colors of a late Mediterranean sunset. City located in a bay surrounded by mountains, with a mild and pleasant climate all year round. Ajaccio offers a relaxed lifestyle.
What to see in Ajaccio
1-The birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte: is the house where the BuonaParte family lived (Bonaparte) and where Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769. It is decorated with furniture from that time and many family objects have been preserved (portraits , the genealogical tree, the mortuary mask of the Emperor of France).
Saint Moritz – Switzerland: Meadows, Snow and Mountains
Saint Moritz (Sank Moritz) , located in the south-east of Switzerland, in the region known as Upper Engadine ,. The site is known worldwide for the celebration here of two winter games: 1928 and 1948.
Sankt Moritz (St. Moritz) was mentioned for the first time in the 12th century. It was a village that was formed around springs, which according to beliefs of the time had healing powers. The village is named after Saint Maurice, who according to legend was a martyred Christian in Roman Switzerland.
During the Middle Ages a watchtower was built over its ruins. In the nineteenth century also a defensive wall.Table of Contents – Capri & Ischia
Capri : Exclusive Tourism from the Roman Empire
Capri is an island located at the southern end of the Bay of Naples in Italy. It was already known in the Roman Empire for its beautiful landscapes. The Romans made this island a tourist destination and a place of summer residence. Today it is one of the main tourist places in the Naples area next to the island of Ischia and the city of Naples itself.
Blue Grotto ( Grotta Azzurra)
One of its best known natural sites is the Blue Grotto. It is a dark cavern where the sea shines through the entrance with an electric blue color. There are a variety of exclusive hotels and rest villas.
Rent a boat for a half-day with a private driver. He or she will take you to swim amongst all of the most amazing caves
Rent an excursion to go around the island. But the additional of entering the blue grotto that is unmissable (you have to pay extra)
Walking through the streets of capri is a unique experience. Spectacular landscapes at the end of each street
Visit Villa Krupp. Residence at the beginning of the 20th century of the owner of the famous armament factory. Hot is a park with unique views
Visit Materita Tower. Old medieval tower of Anacapri, was later converted into a residence. Built in 1378, by the monks of the Charterhouse of San Giacomo, to defend against Saracen attacks.
Villa Damecuta: Located in Anacapri, Damecuta is one of the severals imperial Roman villas, and little survives of it. Its plant has a gallery porticada towards the Gulf of Naples, topped by a semicircular viewpoint. During the Middle Ages a watchtower was built. In the nineteenth century also a defensive wall.
Ischia: The Island of Amazing Landscapes
The island of ischia was occupied and inhabited since before the Roman Empire. The Romans did not take care of this island, considering it unstable because of its continued earthquakes.
The Island suffered continuous invasions for more than 1500 years of all the neighboring towns until the crown of Aragon conquered and built a castle. Today it is a place of exclusive villas and hotels. It has many sandy beaches with amenities for tourists.
The Aragonese Castle
Recommend a visit to the Aragonese Castle. We recommend visiting the building and learning its history. Ischia & Capri: Islands to fall in love
Ischia & Capri: Islands to fall in love
How to Get
From Naples. get to the port of Naples. There are some boxes where different companies sell the round trip tickets (or one way) to Ischia, Capri, Salerno, Positano, and Sorrento. Consult the schedules of the last boat, since they vary according to the season of the year. Check here the best travel gadgets to travel to Capri and enjoy