By 2019, the UNWTO expects that the growth of international tourists will be between 3% and 4%, compared to 2018: More in line with historical growth trends. The most visited countries in 2018 were France,Spain, the United States, Italy, China and Mexico.
Overall, the growth of 2018 was led by the growth of the Middle East (+ 10%). Africa (+ 7%). Asia-Pacific and Europe(both with 6% more). Arrivals in the Americas were below the world average (+ 3%).
Travelers on the Rise Every Year
The number of international tourists in the world maintained its strong growth in 2018, with a rise of 6% to 1.4 billion people. Estimated the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The organization, whose study includes those international tourists who overnight in the site they visit, was pleased that the increase was located “clearly above the growth of 3.7% of the world economy.”
The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.
Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire
In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.
A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.
The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.
However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?
Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist
The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.
The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.
Marco Vitruvio Polión : Roman Crane & Hoist Architect
(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )
Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.
In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.
As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.
Stanford University has a calculator of sea and land routes, which existed in the Roman Empire. ( ORBIS) . The calculator has land routes, maritime coast and offshore, used during the Empire. You can calculate the distance and the estimated time according to the season of the year. Also the cost of the transfer in denarii. Below are the examples
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator
Start of the application. With the marine and terrestrial routes
Long route ( Road & River) from Londinium (London) to Coptos in Egypt: The fastest trip from Londinium to Coptos in July takes 55.1 days, covering 6070 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Costs in denarii
In Donkey : Per kilogram of wheat : 19.62 Per Wagon: Per kilogram of wheat : 22.29 Per passenger in a car: 2778.04
Cartago Nova to Rome
Cartago Nova ( Cartagena – Spain) to Rome in July takes 11.3 days, covering 1.577 kilometers. Travel in Summer.
Same route as the previous one but in winter
Londinium to Rome in winter and summer
Roman Empire: Roads Calculator: from Londinium to Rome in winter and summer. According to the season of the year varies the marine and terrestrial route
29 days, 2.897 km, in summer.
A Little History of Roman Roads
The Roman road was the road model used by Rome for the construction of its Empire. The road network was used by the army in the conquest of territories. Large forces could be mobilized with a speed never seen before. He played a fundamental role in the economy because the transport of goods was significantly improved. The roads also had great influence in the diffusion of the new culture and in spreading the Romanization throughout the Empire. The Itinerary of Antonino, of the 3rd century, is the written source that gives us more information about the Roman road network.
The roads united the cities of all points of the empire both military, turistic, commercial or administrative. The trips were easy and fast for the time, with an organization that favored a comfort for its users. Thought, in principle for military use, will be the origin of the economic expansion of the Empire. They also facilitated their fall, since the invading barca towns used them for the conquest of the empire
Saint Moritz – Switzerland: Meadows, Snow and Mountains
Saint Moritz (Sank Moritz) , located in the south-east of Switzerland, in the region known as Upper Engadine ,. The site is known worldwide for the celebration here of two winter games: 1928 and 1948.
Sankt Moritz (St. Moritz) was mentioned for the first time in the 12th century. It was a village that was formed around springs, which according to beliefs of the time had healing powers. The village is named after Saint Maurice, who according to legend was a martyred Christian in Roman Switzerland.