How to do Hiking Safely?

How to do Hiking Safely? Tips. Hiking and trekking are very rewarding activities. In order for the experience to be enjoyed, some basic recommendations must be taken into account. There are many trails where you don’t need to be an expert, perhaps the vast majority. But there are also others instead where the level of difficulty is higher. Whatever the route and the days it involves, it is always necessary to follow some minimum safety rules to fully enjoy it. …

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► What is IP X8 Protection

What is IP X8 Protection

Degree of protection IP

The degree of IP protection refers to the international standard IEC 60528 Degrees of Protection1 frequently used in the technical data of electrical or electronic equipment. Generalized for industrial use as sensors, meters, controllers, electrical boards and of course mobile phones ,tablets and eReaders.

It is a system to classify the different degrees of protection provided to containers that protect the internal components of the equipment.

It is a standard of numerical code and we take the example example:

  • The letters “IP” identify the standard (Ingress Protection).
  • The value “6” or "X"  in the first numeric digit describes the level of protection against dust, in this case:
  • “The dust must not enter under any circumstances”.
  • The value “8” in the second numeric digit describes the level of protection against liquids (usually water), in this example: “The object must withstand (without filtration) the complete immersion to 1 meter and a half of water for 30 minutes ‘.As a general rule it can be established that the higher the IP number, the more protected the equipment.

eReader kindle paperwhite IPX8 Waterproof
eReader kindle paperwhite IPX8 Waterproof - buy on amazon !

First digit: Solid particle protection

The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.

Level sizedEffective againstDescription
0No protection against contact and ingress of objects
1>50 mmAny large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part
2>12.5 mmFingers or similar objects
3>2.5 mmTools, thick wires, etc.
4>1 mmMost wires, slender screws, large ants etc.
5Dust protectedIngress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment.
6Dust tightNo ingress of dust; complete protection against contact (dust tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on air flow.

 

Second digit: Liquid ingress protection

The second digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against harmful ingress of water.[1]

A spray nozzle with no shield.

  1. Test a) is conducted for 10 minutes.
  2. Test b) is conducted (without shield) for 5 minutes minimum.Oscillating tube:

Test duration: 10 minutes, or spray nozzle (same as IPX3 spray nozzle with the shield removed) However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects.

Smartphone IPX8
Smartphone IPX8

The test depth and/or duration is expected to be greater than the requirements for IPX7, and other environmental effects may be added, such as temperature cycling before immersion.Test duration: Agreement with ManufacturerDepth specified by manufacturer, generally up to 3 m

LevelProtection againstEffective againstDetails
0None
1Dripping waterDripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect on the specimen when mounted in an upright position onto a turntable and rotated at 1 RPM.Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 1 mm rainfall per minute
2Dripping water when tilted at 15°Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle of 15° from its normal position. A total of four positions are tested within two axes.Test duration: 2.5 minutes for every direction of tilt (10 minutes total)
Water equivalent to 3 mm rainfall per minute
3Spraying waterWater falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with a counterbalanced shield.Test a) is conducted for 5 minutes, then repeated with the specimen rotated horizontally by 90° for the second 5-minute test. Test b) is conducted (with shield in place) for 5 minutes minimum.For a Spray Nozzle:Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 5 minutes
Water volume: 10 litres per minute
Pressure: 50–150 kPaFor an oscillating tube:Test duration: 10 minutesWater Volume: 0.07 l/min per hole
4Splashing of waterWater splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b)
5Water jetsWater projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 12.5 litres per minute
Pressure: 30 kPa at distance of 3 m
6Powerful water jetsWater projected in powerful jets (12.5 mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 100 litres per minute
Pressure: 100 kPa at distance of 3 m
6KPowerful water jets with increased pressureWater projected in powerful jets (6.3 mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction, under elevated pressure, shall have no harmful effects. Found in DIN 40050, and not IEC 60529.Test duration: at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 75 litres per minute
Pressure: 1000 kPa at distance of 3 m
7Immersion, up to 1 m depthIngress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).Test duration: 30 minutes – ref IEC 60529, table 8.
Tested with the lowest point of the enclosure 1000 mm below the surface of the water, or the highest point 150 mm below the surface, whichever is deeper.
8Immersion, 1 m or more depthThe equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer.
9KPowerful high temperature water jetsProtected against close-range high pressure, high temperature spray downs.Smaller specimens rotate slowly on a turntable, from 4 specific angles. Larger specimens are mounted upright, no turntable required, and are tested freehand for at least 3 minutes at distance of 0.15–0.2 m.There are specific requirements for the nozzle used for the testing.

This test is identified as IPx9 in IEC 60529.

Test duration: 30 seconds in each of 4 angles (2 minutes total)Water volume: 14–16 litres per minute
Pressure: 8–10 MPa (80–100 bar) at distance of 0.10–0.15 m
Water temperature: 80 °C

 

(All tests with the letter “K” are defined by ISO 20653 (replacing DIN 40050-9) and are not found in IEC 60529, except for IPx9 which is the same as the IP69K water test.)

View Kindle Paperwhite Waterproof IPX8

Amazon Kindle Paperwhite IPX8
Kindle Paperwhite IPX8 - Buy on Amazon.com

Related Post: A Good eReader to Enjoy on Any Trip

 

The Useful Kindle Oasis eReader for Left-Handers

The Helpful Kindle Oasis eReader for Left-Handers New : Kindle Oasis eReader for Left-Handers Waterproof !!  After maintaining the same Amazon design, it presents the Amazon Kindle model, a letter-size eBook reader, endowed with a thicker side than the rest. There the hardware is installed. This protuberance for calling it somehow serves to catch the kindle.   It comes equipped with a cover and an additional battery, so you can keep a charge (depending on usage) about two months We understand …

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The Incredible SONY DPT RP1/B Digital Paper

The Incredible SONY DPT RP1

Electronic ink is a very particular type of screen, which does not emit light, so it only uses the battery when it modifies its contents. Well, now we know the Sony DPT-RP1, a 13.3-inch touchscreen electronic ink that borrows many ideas from popular eBooks.

 

The electronic ink, for now

Only works well with grayscale images, and requires a good light to see it, because it has no backlight. Therefore, the Sony DPT-RP1 is a product halfway between a tablet and an eBook.

At the functional level, it allows you to read PDF documents on your screen with 1,650 x 2,220 pixels (can be converted from other formats), with up to a month of autonomy.

Sony DPT-RP1 offers a 13.3-inch screen
Sony DPT-RP1 offers a 13.3-inch screen

 

Does not include Android or other advanced system.

13.3-Inch Screen - Sony DPT-RP1

But the Sony DPT-RP1 offers a 13.3-inch screen, a larger space than e-books, and with tactile functionality. Thanks to the included pen, it is comfortable to annotate.

Sony claims that it has the thickness of 30 pages of paper. Today we also learned about the development of an electronic ink laptop, so it seems that this technology is becoming fashionable again.

The Sony DPT-RP1 electronic ink tablet features a Marvell IAP140 64-bit processor with 4 cores, and 16GB of storage, with space for up to 10,000 documents. It has Wi-Fi ac MIMO and Bluetooth 4.2, while the autonomy can reach one month.

Sony DPT-RP1 offers a 13.3-inch screen

This is an interesting 13.3-inch tablet based on an electronic ink screen that can meet the specific needs of certain users.

Sony DPT-RP1 offers a 13.3-inch screen 

  • World's thinnest, lightest letter-size tablet device: as thin as 30 sheets of paper.
  • Projected capacitive touchscreen allows for “pencil or pen style” writing and erasing with provided stylus.
  • High contrast and no glare, so text can be read clearly even in bright sunlight.
  • Easy drag & drop transfer of documents via USB or wireless (Wi-Fi or Bluetooth) with Digital Paper app installed on your PC or Mac.
  • Rechargeable lithium-ion battery provides up to three weeks use on a single charge. 16GB internal memory provides storage for approximately 10,000 PDF files.

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► Onyx Boox 67ML Carta 2 – eReader Max & Max2 HDMI

Onyx Boox C67 ML Carta – Max & Max2 eReader HDMI

Onyx Boox has launched a high resolution digital reader or eReader. It is the C 67 ML This model has an e-Ink Letter 2 screen with a resolution of 1148 x 1072 with 300 PPI on the screen. It also has an integrated front light to allow reading in certain special circumstances.

The C6 series is in its third phase or generation. This is the first digital Onyx Boox reader that employs the new Chart 2 display. The device has some striking features such as that dual core Cortex-A9 processor at a clock speed of 1 GHz, 512 MB of RAM, 8 GB of internal memory And expandable internal storage up to 32 GB with micro SD card. It also has a 3.5mm audio plug to listen to audiobooks or even music.

Read More► Onyx Boox 67ML Carta 2 – eReader Max & Max2 HDMI