◙ Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Evolution of a Crane and Hoist in Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Crane
Ancient Rome Crane

 

The Roman Empire invested a lot of time, effort and money developing new cranes for the construction of their buildings, bridges and especially aqueducts. They took the Greek’s crane as a model and improved it.

Tripastos in Ancient Roman Empire

In fact, the simplest Roman crane was the Tripastos. It consisted of a single beam jib, a lathe, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. By maintaining a multiplication ratio of 3 to 1, a single crane operator could raise 300 lbs.

Pentaspastos

A more advanced type of crane was the Pentaspastos which had five pulleys. Moreover and even more sophisticated than the Pentaspastos, was the Polyspastos, which had 15 pulleys and up to four masts with a ratio of 60 to 1.

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Roman crane

 

The Polyspastos, indeed, had four operators per side of the lathe, and it could have a maximum load lifting capacity of 6000 pounds accounting for the maximal effort per operator of 100 pounds each. In case the winch was replaced by a drum, it would double its capacity to 12000 lbs.

However some buildings contained stone’s blocks of more than 100,000 lbs. How could they lift these loads more than 30 yards high?

Ancient Rome Books

Roman Empire Engineers. Crane & Hoist

The Roman engineers managed to raise these weights using a diversity of winches. Although winches have a lower multiplication factor of forces than those driven by drums, Romans could have installed more quantity of winches operated by men or even animals. This kind operation a great coordination was required between the working groups that operated the capstans.

The cranes were almost always operated by slaves who were designed for these industrial jobs. In fact, they were assigned in the so-called squads which had a technical head, the praepositus.

 

Marco Vitruvio Polión : Roman Crane & Hoist Architect

(in latín Marcus Vitruvius Pollio; c. -70 BC. -15 BC )

Marco Vitruvio was the author of a book, known today as The Ten Books of Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and ancient Greek about Architecture. It was dedicated to the Emperor Augustus.

Ancient Roman Crane engineers
Ancient Roman Crane engineers

In this book he describes different types machines such as forklifts, cranes and pulleys used for engineering structures. It also contained descriptions of war machines like catapults, crossbows and siege machines.

As he was an engineer, Vitruvio was not only doing a description of the machines itself but he might probably have built and tested them.

Roman Cranes = Medieval Treadwheel Cranes

The Roman crane  ( treadwheel crane) almost unchanged or modified will be used until the modern age and in some cases until the mid-nineteenth century as in the ports of Germany. Some are still today in their original places of construction. As an example we will put the Cathedral of Strasbourg (France) and the Church Beverley Minster (England)

Roman crane

 

Roman Crane: Vitruvius the ten books on architecture on Amazon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman crane
Roman Crane Today

History Of Tourism Greece. Roman Empire and Middle Ages

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Ancient Cranes in Pinterest

A colaboration of : Besthoist.com

 

► We do a Review of Kindle Oasis Waterproof

Kindle Oasis Waterproof IPX8

For those who want to enjoy a good book by the pool or while bathing without fear of damaging their eReader, Amazon introduces the new Kindle Oasis. It’s your first waterproof electronic reader.

Tablets and phones are great for basic activities, but they do not offer the best reading quality. The best option for this purpose are e-Readers, which are specially designed for reading e-books. Thin and compact, they can be used for several days on a single charge, and they have non-reflective screens that do not tire the eyes.

Amazon has just launched its new Kindle Oasis waterproof, a 7-inch e-book reader with an excellent design exterior, integrated support for audiobooks, and what is novelty, waterproof.

Leer más► We do a Review of Kindle Oasis Waterproof

8 Best Cities for Digital Nomads & Remote work

List of best Cities for Digital Nomads

Traveling the world without quitting your job. 

They are people who make the world their office. Dream of a whole generation. Work remotely while touring beaches, mountains and distant cities with just one notebook.
But which cities are more and less friendly for this community of digital nomads?

The Nomadlist website prepares this list with the help of its members. There are more than one hundred cities registered but here we only present the first eight

The ranking of the first eight was prepared on August 2, 2019 but changes every day. This is by uploading the data of the members that are done daily

Canggu – Bali

 

  • The concept of the digital nomad is already widespread. Due to technological advances, it is estimated that by 2025 there will be one billion people in the world who could be global digital workers.

Budapest – Hungary

  • What category of work do they do? They are mostly programmers, designers and web developers. But also, experts in marketing and digital content.


Bangkok – Thailand

Bangkok- 8 best Cities for Digital Workers
Bangkok- 8 best Cities for Digital Workers
  • Professionals from various fields who have a good Internet connection to get the financial support to finance their traveling adventures. The ideal travel gadgets for digital nomads can be obtained here

Berlin – Germany

 8 best Cities for Digital Nomads
Berlin- 8 best Cities for Digital Nomads
  • What does Nomadlist measure? . Well, measure the cost of living in that city. The degree of fun. The type and speed of the internet connection. And not least the degree of local citizen security

Prague – Czechia

  • In addition, community members have other scores to qualify the city where they are. LGBT friendly. Racial tolerance Free WIFI in city. Hospitals Freedom of spech and Female Friendly among others

Warsaw – Poland

Warsaw- Cities for Digital Nomads
Warsaw- 8 best Cities for Digital Nomads
  • The cost of living analysis is also excellent with many interesting details

Buenos Aires – Argentina

Buenos aires - Cities for Digital Nomads
Buenos Aires- 8 best Cities for Digital Workers
  • It also has a chat room for communication between members who are in the same city


Lisbon – Portugal

Lisbon - Cities for Digital Nomads

  • In short, a website that provides excellent services to the community of Digital Nomads & Remote workers

Source:  Nomadlist Site

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5 World Oldest Coffee Shops

Oldest Coffee Shops in The World

These Coffee Houses exist today. All are old, some more luxurious than others. Some true works of art. Others have a lot of history. They met writers, politicians, revolutionaries. Conspiracies were forged. Everyone has coffee in common.

Having a coffee in these places is sharing it with Dante, Casanova, Dickens, Danton and so many other characters in History. Maybe some of them are there. Sharing a coffee in any of its forms. Visiting these places is living history with a coffee in hand.

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Café Procope - Paris

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

In 1686 when Louis XIV reigned over France from the palace of Versailles, in Paris the Cafe Procope opened its doors. Just 20 years after the introduction of coffee in the court of Louis XIV.
An Italian named Francesco Procopio Dei Coltelli opened an establishment near Saint-Germain-des-Prés where this infusion would be tested in society. The establishment was opened to sell coffees and ice cream, specialties that the Italians exported to the main European capitals.
It is the oldest coffee house in the world

Since 1686

Café Florian - Venice

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

The Cafè Florian inaugurated it in 1720 rl Mr. Floriano Francesconi. The original name was "Alla Venezia Trionfante" (Venice the triumphant). The name change occurred when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the city. The owners of that time put the name of the founder FLORIAN. Notable people, like Goethe and Casanova were regulars. Especially because it was the only Coffee House that allowed women. Lord Byron, Marcel Proust and Charles Dickens were also frequent visitors. It is one of the most oldest coffee shops in the world

Since 1720

Café Cafe Colombo - Rio de Janeiro

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

Portuguese immigrants Joaquim Borges de Meireles and Manuel José Lebrão founded this Coffee House in 1894. Its architectural style is Art deco. The rooms renovated with Art Noveau style with mirrors brought from Antwerp. The wooden furniture is from the artisan Antônio Borsoi. It is located at Rua Gonçalves Dias, 32 • Centro - Rio de Janeiro / RJ.
The oldest coffee shops in Brazil. Also the most luxurious

Since 1894

Café New York - Budapest

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

The New York Life Insurance Company built a luxurious building in the early 1890s. It was located in Erzsébet körút 9-11. It is the VII district of Budapest (Erzsébetváros).
In the basement of the building is the Coffee House New York. It was inaugurated on October 23, 1894 and survived two world wars and the Communist regime without major damage.
After a restoration process initiated in 2001, the coffee was reopened again on May 5, 2006. It is one of the most luxurious coffee shops in the world

Since 1894

Majestic Cafe - Porto

For the serious traveller, Traveller Magazine is a mine of information, keeping you up-to-date with the latest trends in travel and tourism.

The Coffee shop Majestic located in Rua de Santa Catarina # 122, opened its doors in 1921 with the name of “Elite”. It was designed by architect Joao Queirós inspired by the work of maestro Marques da Silva. At its inauguration attended all the personalities of the political and artistic world.In 1922, the name was changed to the current one. Art Deco style was one of the most luxurious places in Oporto. The marble facade is adorned with plant motifs of sinuous shapes. A trio of charming columns marks the facade. It is one of the best Decorated coffee shops in the world

Since 1921
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World Oldest Coffee Shops
Cafe Colombo – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil * Oldest Coffee Shops

 

History Of Tourism Greece. Roman Empire and Middle Ages

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High Line in New York City

High Line Park in Manhattan

An elevated railroad out of use has become a recreational park on the West Side in New York. It is known as the High Line, and this area was completely rebuilt. Since its opening in 2009, the city has been integrated with a beautiful tour of Chelsea and the trendy Meatpacking district.

 

The New York HL stands out for its sustainable design. Also for its artistic design: the High Line Art. It is an art program that includes works, exhibitions, videos and a series of panoramas designed by renowned artists. All creative ideas to attract the public in this unique space in history and design.High Line in New York City

Allen Ruppersberg, Paola Pivi and Gilbert & George are several of the artists who have participated in the panoramic designs of High Line Art. You can also see the works commissioned for the High Line, some permanent and some temporary.

High Line in New York City
High Line in New York City

The Meatpacking district has good restaurants and cafes. So it is advisable to start the tour at the first entrance under the Standard Hotel. Then continue to Chelsea where the tour can continue with visits to the galleries that the area offers. See map

To discover all that the High Line has to offer art at art.highline.org and social networks @highlineartnyc.

High Line in New York City

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